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     In each appropriate period, there was a proportion of 10.00∶3 90∶11 44∶2 9 13∶5 38 in the contents of N,P,K,Ca and Mg. Our studies suggest that fertilizers applied to Shuangyou should mainly contain N,P and K, and at the same time some Ca and Mg should be supplemented properly.
     各时期双优山葡萄叶柄内N、P、K、Ca、Mg比例大约在 10 0 0∶3 90∶11 4 4∶2 9 13∶5 38,建议双优山葡萄追肥以N、P、K为主 ,适当补施Ca、Mg肥
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     On supplying manure, we use phosphate fertilizer and farmhouse's manure as base manure, supply nitrogenous fertilizer at different time, and supply potash fertilizer again during the middle period of rice growing with suitable formula 2.5 (N):1 (P):1.5 (K), and then supply microelement silicon fertilizer.
     施肥方式方法上磷肥与农家肥堆沤作底肥,氮肥“重底早追,前促中控后补”,钾肥在水稻生育中期重施,合理配方N:P:K为2.5:1:1.5,补施微量元素硅肥。
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     In fertilizer respect, nitrogen is increased by 220-230kg/ha, potassium is added up to 70-150kg/ha,phosphorus is remained to 75-80kg/ha.
     在施肥上,应增施氮肥、补施钾肥,公顷施氮量应增加到220~230kg,钾(K_2O)应补施到70~150kg,磷(P_2O_5)要保持原来75~80kg即可;
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     If 400~450 kg/mu of wheat and corn yields and 2000kg/mu of sweet potato(tuber roots)are kept, 55kg of urea, 46 kg of calcium magnesium phosphate and 36 kg of potassium chloride should be added so as to maintain the nutrient balance in soils based on the application of 500kg of barnyard manure.
     若保持小麦、玉米401~450kg/亩,红薯2000kg/亩(块根)的水平,每年在施用500kg/亩农家肥的基础上,还需补施尿素55kg/亩,钙镁磷46kg,氯化钾36kg,方能维持土壤养分平衡。
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     On the larva,the corrected controlling ratio of smoke agent could reach 83.56% and 90.07%,respectively by the dose of 1 312.5 mL/hm2 and 1 575 mL/hm2.So,it is suggested that the supplement should be carried out after spraying the agents for seven days on the fields existing severe reduplicated generation in order to control the Plutella xylostella completely.
     结果表明:Bt-15A3烟雾剂的供试剂量为1312.5mL/hm2和1575mL/hm2时对幼虫有较理想的防效,防效分别达到83.56%和90.07%。 对于世代重叠严重的田块,应在药后7d进行补施,以达到彻底控制小菜蛾危害的目的。
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     3 Effects of different nitrogen applied level on nitrogen
     氮?
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     The Effect of Applying N and K in Late Stage on the Yield of Winter Wheat
     冬小麦后期氮钾增产效应分析
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     Effects of applied CO_2 in the solar greenhouse on characters of Cucumis sativus's growth
     CO_2对日光温室黄瓜生长的影响
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     SPA ENJOYMENT
     spa浴
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The present experiment has demonstrated that, at the foundation of induction to the bolting of sugar beet seedlings with low temperature and successive illumination, the percentage of bolting may be remarkably raised, if the plant hormones as gibberel- lin, ethylene are appropriately applied to the sugar beets When the low temperature or the low temperature and successive illumination are not put in, the sole adding of plant hormones can also result in boring. In these experiments we have also observed some...

The present experiment has demonstrated that, at the foundation of induction to the bolting of sugar beet seedlings with low temperature and successive illumination, the percentage of bolting may be remarkably raised, if the plant hormones as gibberel- lin, ethylene are appropriately applied to the sugar beets When the low temperature or the low temperature and successive illumination are not put in, the sole adding of plant hormones can also result in boring. In these experiments we have also observed some phenomena: A. the low temperature 3-5°C is not necessary to development of Sugar Beet seedlings; B. after bolting the plant may either bloom and bear fruits or remain at the bol- ting stage, This means that, the bolting and blooming of Sugar Beet are both cor- relative and independent with each other in two physiological processes; C. under some unfavorable conditions, the counter transition in the develop- ment of Sugar Beet may occur.

在低温、连续光照诱导甜菜实生苗抽苔的基础上,适当施加赤霉素等植物激素,可显著提高抽苔率。当不具备低温或不具备低温及连续光照条件时,仅施以植物激素也可导致抽苔。在试验中观察到两种现象。(1)抽苔以后的植株可能开花、结子,也可能滞留在抽苔阶段。这说明甜菜的抽苔和开花是两个既相联系而又独立的生理过程。(2)已抽苔的植株顶端可以回复到莲座叶丛状营养生长,而补施赤霉素等植物激素后又可使高蓬座叶丛再度插苔。这两种现象对探讨甜菜发育机理有所启示。甜菜是二年生作物,繁殖一代需两年时间。为了缩短甜菜的育种年限,内蒙太平庄甜菜育种试验站曾探讨了连续光照(自然光照加夜间补充光照)及低温诱导的方法变甜菜二年繁殖一代为一年繁殖两代的试验,取得了初步成效(50天10℃左右低温+100天连续光照诱导下,可使甜菜实生苗当年抽苔率达百分之七十五左右)。存在的问题是,经过光、温诱导后的植株抽苔率不够理想,不抽苔率约占25%,这就可能使品种的某些优良性状由于不抽苔不结实而丧失掉。因此在诱导甜菜实生苗抽苔中如何提高抽苔率的问题就显得十分重要。植物从营养生长过渡到开花、结实是由植物激素调节控制的。无疑,向植株生长尖端施加某些激素有可能对营...

在低温、连续光照诱导甜菜实生苗抽苔的基础上,适当施加赤霉素等植物激素,可显著提高抽苔率。当不具备低温或不具备低温及连续光照条件时,仅施以植物激素也可导致抽苔。在试验中观察到两种现象。(1)抽苔以后的植株可能开花、结子,也可能滞留在抽苔阶段。这说明甜菜的抽苔和开花是两个既相联系而又独立的生理过程。(2)已抽苔的植株顶端可以回复到莲座叶丛状营养生长,而补施赤霉素等植物激素后又可使高蓬座叶丛再度插苔。这两种现象对探讨甜菜发育机理有所启示。甜菜是二年生作物,繁殖一代需两年时间。为了缩短甜菜的育种年限,内蒙太平庄甜菜育种试验站曾探讨了连续光照(自然光照加夜间补充光照)及低温诱导的方法变甜菜二年繁殖一代为一年繁殖两代的试验,取得了初步成效(50天10℃左右低温+100天连续光照诱导下,可使甜菜实生苗当年抽苔率达百分之七十五左右)。存在的问题是,经过光、温诱导后的植株抽苔率不够理想,不抽苔率约占25%,这就可能使品种的某些优良性状由于不抽苔不结实而丧失掉。因此在诱导甜菜实生苗抽苔中如何提高抽苔率的问题就显得十分重要。植物从营养生长过渡到开花、结实是由植物激素调节控制的。无疑,向植株生长尖端施加某些激素有可能对营养体抽苔起促进作用。赤霉素及乙烯都是植物的重要激素,赤霉素能促进二年生长日照植物的发育,乙烯具有较为广泛的生理作用,其中之一是能够促进成熟过程。针对上述问题,我们拟定在对甜菜实生苗进行光、温诱导的同时给以赤霉素和乙烯利处理,以摸索这两种植物激素在提高抽苔率方面的作用。

A cultural experiment was carried on in Chengjiao People′s Commune,Shuyang County, Jiangsu Province with the aim of attaining high yield and low cost in wheat production. An average per mu yield as high as 545.3 kg in an area of 100 mu was obtained. The production cost was 8.8 yuan for 100 kg of grain in comparison with 11.4 yuan in ordinary fields, i.e. 30.7 percent lower.The results of the experiment showed that a model of proper structure of dynamic population in winning a high yield over 500 kg per mu for...

A cultural experiment was carried on in Chengjiao People′s Commune,Shuyang County, Jiangsu Province with the aim of attaining high yield and low cost in wheat production. An average per mu yield as high as 545.3 kg in an area of 100 mu was obtained. The production cost was 8.8 yuan for 100 kg of grain in comparison with 11.4 yuan in ordinary fields, i.e. 30.7 percent lower.The results of the experiment showed that a model of proper structure of dynamic population in winning a high yield over 500 kg per mu for the multipleheaded wheat variety required a density of 100-120 thousand seedlings per mu with a maximum number of 900-1000 thousand culms, 450-500 thousand ears, each with 30 kernals and a weight of 38-40 grains per thousand grains. It also showed that the optimum leaf area index for obtaining a yield over 500 kg permu was about 1.5-2 at the beginning of the overwintering stage, 4 at the elongation stage, 3-4 at the grain-filling stage and the highest leaf area index was about 7. The amount of dry material accumulated was 150-200 kg, 400 kg, 750-900 kg at the overwintering, elongating and booting stages respectively. The maximum dry weight was 1300-1400 kg,and its economic coefficient was about 0.4.The main cultural practices to ensure the above high yielding object are: (1)sowing winter wheat early at an optimum time; (2) raising the quality of ploughing and sowing to ensure a full stand of wheat sprouts; (3) applying a moderate amount of basic and tiller′s fertilizer to promote the growth of seedlings and the formation of strong tillers; topdressing according to the state of plants during the stem elongation to booting stage to increase the number of grains; (4) irrigating according to the soil condition to satisfy the need of moisture by wheat plant.

1980—1981年在江苏沭阳县城郊公社叶庄大队进行小麦高产、低成本栽培试验,种植的100.14亩淮麦11号小麦平均亩产1090.5斤。高产田小麦每百斤的生产成本为4.4元,一般大田小麦每百斤为5.7元,高产田比一般田降低30.7%。 淮北地区半冬性多穗型品种千斤小麦的合理群体动态模式:基本苗10—12万,最高茎蘖数90—110万,每亩穗数45—50万,每穗30粒以上,千粒重38—40克。叶面积指数控制指标,越冬始期1.5—2,拔节期4左右,最大叶面积指数7左右,乳熟期3.5—4。干物质积累量,越冬期150—200公斤,拔节期400公斤左右,孕穗期750—900公斤,灌浆成熟期1300—1400公斤,经济系数0.4左右。 达到上述高产模式的主要栽培技术措施:(1)适期早播,充分利用温、光资源,促苗早发;(2)提高整地和播种质量,保证苗全、苗匀;(3)看苗诊断,合理用肥,施足基肥,看苗补施分蘖肥,拔节孕穗期看苗追施穗肥,保花增粒;(4)建立田间灌排工程,根据土壤墒情和小麦生长情况,合理用水,满足小麦对水分的要求。

This article mainly shows the following questions: (1) The highest wheatyield is at the two nitrogen dressing period that is the stage of gettingup and elongation. Applying nitrogen fertilizer before getting up stage canmainly increase spike number. Applying nitrogen at the getting up stage andelongation stage not only increase spike number but increase the grain num-ber per spike. Applying fertilizer after elongation mainly adds the grainweight. (2) The protein content of the grain is raising with applying...

This article mainly shows the following questions: (1) The highest wheatyield is at the two nitrogen dressing period that is the stage of gettingup and elongation. Applying nitrogen fertilizer before getting up stage canmainly increase spike number. Applying nitrogen at the getting up stage andelongation stage not only increase spike number but increase the grain num-ber per spike. Applying fertilizer after elongation mainly adds the grainweight. (2) The protein content of the grain is raising with applying fer-tilizer stage being put off. The higher of soil fertility, the larger increaseyield range. It is a feasible road of Increasing the protein content of grainto raise the soil fertility and the dressing in the latter period. (3) theefficiency of Applying fertilizer for the grain yieid and protein contentthere is a synchronous increase period at the stage before elongation. Ap-plying fertilizer at the each stage after elon gation can only raise theprotein content of grain, can′t increase the yield. However at the gettingup stage and elongation stage not oniy yield of grain is the highest butthe protein productivity is also the highest.

本文主要探明以下问题:(1)小麦产量以起身、拔节两个时期追肥的最高。起身以前追肥主要是增加了穗数,起身、拔节两个时期追肥既可增穗又可增加粒数,拔节期以后追肥则主要是增加粒重。(2)籽粒蛋白质含量随施肥时期的后延而增加,土壤肥力水平越高,增长幅度越大。提高土壤肥力和后期补施氮肥是提高籽粒蛋白质含量的可行途径。(3)追肥对小麦产量与籽粒蛋白质含量的效应存在有同步增长的时期,拔节期以前各时期追肥,产量与籽粒蛋白质含量的增长是同步的;拔节期以后各时期追肥,只能提高籽粒蛋白质含量,而不能增加产量。起身、拔节两个时期追肥,产量最高,单位面积蛋白质生产量也最高。

 
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