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  state subsidy
State subsidy payments for forest plantations or for timber stand improvements increased IRRs somewhat and reserving areas for environmental protection reduced their IRRs slightly.
      
Finland's 1993 state subsidy reform encouraged hospital districts to determine their services as products and change their pricing from bed-day to case-based and fee-for-service types.
      
We show that (1) government intervention amplifies transitional price and output fluctuations and (2) the steady-state subsidy rate and infant production are decreasing in the speed of learning.
      
A major state subsidy reform in that year reduced regulation by the state, and by 2000, regulation by norms was almost nonexistent.
      
A state subsidy, on average, covers 28% of a municipality's operating budget and 42% of its capital investments.
      
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The development of agricultural mechanization should bring about significant economic benefits. This is not only a basic principle theoretically in promoting agricultural mechanization, but also has been proved valid by a great amount of practical successful results both in this country and abroad. However, viewing the past 30 years' course of agricultural mechanization in Heilongjiang province, it is noticed that not all of the counties, communes and brigades have obtained the expected economic benefit as they...

The development of agricultural mechanization should bring about significant economic benefits. This is not only a basic principle theoretically in promoting agricultural mechanization, but also has been proved valid by a great amount of practical successful results both in this country and abroad. However, viewing the past 30 years' course of agricultural mechanization in Heilongjiang province, it is noticed that not all of the counties, communes and brigades have obtained the expected economic benefit as they should. This is also true for the nation as a whole. The main reasons are. the related sectors of national economy had not been well compatiable, the course of mechanization had been separated apart to certain extent from the development of agricultural prodaction,the supply of some agricultural machineries did not meet the needs, the economic returns from machine investments had been neglected, etc. In one word, the natural and economic principles of agricultural mechanization development had not been studied thoroughly under the pecific conditions. Especially, not enough attention was paid to the research Work on "mechanization". The major contents of the scientific and technological system of mechanization includes five aspects. agricultural machinery system, energy resources of agriculture, management and administration of agricultural mechanization, technical extention service on operation, maintenence and repair, and technical economy of agricultural mechanization. It is recommended to generalize all these five aspects into a new field named as "agricultural mechanization engineering". Through study of this new dis- cipline, a scientific basis will be provided to implement the development of the agricultural mechanization in our country, and gradually develop a Chinese pattern of agricultural mechanization. In view of the situation that China is a socialistic country, not very rich in natural resources per capita, rather poor in industrial and agricultural expertise, as well as short of economic foundation, our way of agricultural mechanization should have the following features, to provide employment for each rural labor displaced by mechanization, to promote energy saving type of mechanization with major goal of increasing yield, to integrate self-reliance of commune-brigade and the support from the state for fund of mechanizatlion, to adopt appropriate technology, not too rush for complete mechanization, to concern the benefit of state, collective and individual simutaneously, to permit partial farmers become rich ahead but set co-prosperity as a goal.

发展农业机械化应能带来明显的经济效果,这不仅从理论上说应当是推行农业机械化不可违背的根本原则,也早已为国内外大量成功的实践所证实。但从黑龙江省三十年来农业机械化的历程来看,许多县和社队并未因推行机械化都获得应有的经济效果。从全国来看也大致如此。主要原因是:国民经济有关部门配合不够,同农业生产发展有些割裂,某些农机产品供应同需要脱节和投放机器不注重经济核算等等。归总起来就是一条:从特定条件出发研究农业机械化发展的自然规律和经济规律不够。特别是没有认真把农业机械“化”的科学研究开展起来。农业机械“化”科学技术体系的主要内容可归纳为:农业机器系统、农业生产能源、农机化经营管理、农机化技术推广服务和农机化技术经济五方面。建议用“农业机械、化工程”这一新学科名称来概括。通过农业机械化工程的研究,可以为我们社会主义国家提供积极干预农机化事业发展的科学依据,逐步走出一条中国式的农业机械化道路来。针对我们是社会主义国家和人均自然资源较少,工农业技术和经济基础都比较薄弱等情况,我国农业机械化道路应具有以下主要特点:搞农业机械化要给每个农业劳动力安排出路;要搞以增产为主要目标的能源节约型的机械化;机械化资金要社队自力更生与...

发展农业机械化应能带来明显的经济效果,这不仅从理论上说应当是推行农业机械化不可违背的根本原则,也早已为国内外大量成功的实践所证实。但从黑龙江省三十年来农业机械化的历程来看,许多县和社队并未因推行机械化都获得应有的经济效果。从全国来看也大致如此。主要原因是:国民经济有关部门配合不够,同农业生产发展有些割裂,某些农机产品供应同需要脱节和投放机器不注重经济核算等等。归总起来就是一条:从特定条件出发研究农业机械化发展的自然规律和经济规律不够。特别是没有认真把农业机械“化”的科学研究开展起来。农业机械“化”科学技术体系的主要内容可归纳为:农业机器系统、农业生产能源、农机化经营管理、农机化技术推广服务和农机化技术经济五方面。建议用“农业机械、化工程”这一新学科名称来概括。通过农业机械化工程的研究,可以为我们社会主义国家提供积极干预农机化事业发展的科学依据,逐步走出一条中国式的农业机械化道路来。针对我们是社会主义国家和人均自然资源较少,工农业技术和经济基础都比较薄弱等情况,我国农业机械化道路应具有以下主要特点:搞农业机械化要给每个农业劳动力安排出路;要搞以增产为主要目标的能源节约型的机械化;机械化资金要社队自力更生与国家资助相结合,要采用“适当技术”,不要急于追求全面机械化;要兼顾国家、集体、个人三方面的利益,要既允许部分农民先富,又要以共同富裕为目标。

Prevention of blindness is the most important aim of ophthalmology. Prevention of blindness is related to many factors. It is related to many factors, such as science and technology, economy and social behavior. There areworldwide activities by WHO, NGOs and other functions to promote the preventionof blindness in the world. More than 90% of blind population lives in developing world. Cataract is the top causes of blindness which is curable. Onchocerciasis is an endemic discase in west Africa and central America....

Prevention of blindness is the most important aim of ophthalmology. Prevention of blindness is related to many factors. It is related to many factors, such as science and technology, economy and social behavior. There areworldwide activities by WHO, NGOs and other functions to promote the preventionof blindness in the world. More than 90% of blind population lives in developing world. Cataract is the top causes of blindness which is curable. Onchocerciasis is an endemic discase in west Africa and central America. Onchocerca Control Project (OCP) was formed in 1974 under WHO for the control of oncocerdasis by the funds of developed countries. The control of vector (simuiium) as well as new drug are giving the the project the prospect of success in eradicating the disease, thus preventing the blindness by diseases. The situation on blindness by trachoma, childhood blindness, glaucoma, diabeteswill be discussed. The progress of molecular genetics of eye disease may open the gate for prevention of blindness by these disease in future.

防盲是眼科最重要的目标,许多因素与防盲相关,包括科学和技术、经济和社会行为.世界卫生组织(WHO)、非官方组织及其它的功能组织在推动防盲活动方面遍及全球.90%以上的盲人生活在发展中国家.白内障是盲的最主要原因且是可治性的.盘尾丝虫病是西部非洲和中美洲的一种地方病.盘尾丝虫控制规划(OCP)是在发达国家资助下由WHO在1974年建立的,旨在控制盘尾丝虫病.传播媒介(钠苍蝇属)的控制以及新的药物使该计划在根除此疾病以达到防盲的目的方面有着成功的前景.还将讨论由沙眼、儿童盲、青光眼及糖尿病致盲的状况.眼部疾病的分子遗传学的进展为将来这些疾病所致盲的预防开辟了途径.

China′s city citizens′ incomes see a decreasing tendency from the east to the west.Large potential of sports supplies and demand in the developed cities promotes sports consumption while the consumming level in the underdeloped cities is comparatively lower.Thus,in the underdeveloped cities,sports activities should be coordinated and supported by the government and treated differently from the sports policy in the developed cities so as to enhance their sports consumming level in a gradual way.

】目前,我国城市居民经济收入由东至西呈递减趋势。经济发达城市体育供给能力和体育需求接受程度大,并推进了体育消费;而欠发达城市居民体育消费水平偏低。发达城市要将体育视为提高居民生活方式的一个重要内容,向体育多元化发展;欠发达城市体育要通过自身内部协调和国家资助,调节发展,制定区别于发达城市的体育政策,逐步提高体育消费水平

 
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