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淹水地
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     A Brief Analysis on Virtual Ground
     浅析虚
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     The Split Ground Plane
     平面的分割
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     淹水导致池
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     This novel technology for rice cultivation is promising in the development of sustainable water saving agriculture especially in semi-arid areas.
     水稻覆膜旱作比裸旱作或淹水栽培显著节水。
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     Site Election and Growth Calculation of Populus Afforestation under Flooding Stress in Beach Land of Dongting Lake
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In recent years,the Rhizoctonia blight of rice in southern part of Kiangsi province hasassumed an epidemic scale.The disease was found to be encouraged by close planting and high nitrogen fertilization.In general,semi-glutinous rice varieties were more susceptible than non-glutinous and glutinous.There were also varietal difference in susceptibility within each group.Effectiveness of sweeping out the sclerotia off the flooded fields before planting and apply-ing fungicidal materials on flooded fields before...

In recent years,the Rhizoctonia blight of rice in southern part of Kiangsi province hasassumed an epidemic scale.The disease was found to be encouraged by close planting and high nitrogen fertilization.In general,semi-glutinous rice varieties were more susceptible than non-glutinous and glutinous.There were also varietal difference in susceptibility within each group.Effectiveness of sweeping out the sclerotia off the flooded fields before planting and apply-ing fungicidal materials on flooded fields before planting and on growing plants in diseasecontrol were studied.Application of 1,500 kg.per hector of tea seed cake before plantingappeared to be promising.

近年来水稻纹枯病在江西南部地区发生普遍而严重,已成为水稻丰产的障碍。株间光照弱,温度高,通风不良,相对湿度高会促进病害的严重发生。在农业栽培措施中,肥料,尤其是氮素肥料对发病影响最大,氮肥愈多病害愈重,肥料配合与施用方法和插秧密度也影响病害的发生,分蘖后浅水灌溉,发病较轻,合理落水晒田可抑制病势发展,不当的栽培技术引起水稻倒伏,会促进病害剧烈发展,而病害的加重又促进植株倒伏。水稻感病程度的轻重依次为粳、籼、糯。粳稻一般发病较重。品种间抗性差异极大,但尚未见免疫品种。同一品种不同品系也有差异,经过选育的新品系,抗病程度有一定增强。在防治上,捞除田间菌核有一定防病作用。插秧前,利用药剂消毒、稻田淹水层,防病增产效果较大,其中茶籽饼液药效最好,田间防治效果71.5—95.8%,增产稻谷6.8—47.3%。消毒早稻田后,对晚稻防病增产仍有残效。

~~

1.种稻改良盐渍土的实质在于灌溉淡水下渗可淋洗土壤中盐分,并形成地下水淡水层。淡水下渗数量及高矿化地下水的排除是影响土壤脱盐及地下水淡水层形成的主要因素。2.目前河北滨海地区所设的末级固定浅排水沟只能影响上层土体的水盐运动,不能调节高矿化地下水;排水干沟虽然可起调节地下水运动的作用,但因间距过大不能控制整个灌溉地段,因而建議末级固定排水沟采用深浅沟相结合的布置形式,以利于保存淡水和排出高矿化地下水,而建立淡水层。3.水田转为旱作后,水盐动态的调节主要是減少淡水层的消耗,防止土壤返盐,主要措施有:末级固定渠系的深沟进行排水,控制地下水位在一定深度;进行秋耕、中耕、灌溉减少地下水蒸发。4.稻田周围地区水盐动态的变化主要是由于稻田下渗水的侧渗及稻田高水头的静水压力作用,引起周围地下水抬高,从而导致沼泽化和盐渍化的加重。所以,必需合理的配置稻田,并于水旱交界处设“两河一路”形式的排水沟。5.种植水稻可以在较低标准的人工排水条件下使土壤脱盐并建立地下水淡水层,为转入旱作创造条件。水田改为旱作可消除长期淹水对土壤产生的不良影响,提高肥力。水旱输作可使地下水淡水层厚度逐渐稳定,而使土壤达到稳定脱盐。排水种稻实施水旱輸作是改...

1.种稻改良盐渍土的实质在于灌溉淡水下渗可淋洗土壤中盐分,并形成地下水淡水层。淡水下渗数量及高矿化地下水的排除是影响土壤脱盐及地下水淡水层形成的主要因素。2.目前河北滨海地区所设的末级固定浅排水沟只能影响上层土体的水盐运动,不能调节高矿化地下水;排水干沟虽然可起调节地下水运动的作用,但因间距过大不能控制整个灌溉地段,因而建議末级固定排水沟采用深浅沟相结合的布置形式,以利于保存淡水和排出高矿化地下水,而建立淡水层。3.水田转为旱作后,水盐动态的调节主要是減少淡水层的消耗,防止土壤返盐,主要措施有:末级固定渠系的深沟进行排水,控制地下水位在一定深度;进行秋耕、中耕、灌溉减少地下水蒸发。4.稻田周围地区水盐动态的变化主要是由于稻田下渗水的侧渗及稻田高水头的静水压力作用,引起周围地下水抬高,从而导致沼泽化和盐渍化的加重。所以,必需合理的配置稻田,并于水旱交界处设“两河一路”形式的排水沟。5.种植水稻可以在较低标准的人工排水条件下使土壤脱盐并建立地下水淡水层,为转入旱作创造条件。水田改为旱作可消除长期淹水对土壤产生的不良影响,提高肥力。水旱输作可使地下水淡水层厚度逐渐稳定,而使土壤达到稳定脱盐。排水种稻实施水旱輸作是改良利用滨海盐渍土的有效途径。但应根据地形、水文地质、土壤及水源条件,区分为常年稻作、水旱输作及水旱输作后改为常年旱作三种情况,其所采用的水盐调节措施亦应有所不同。

In accordance with the actual condition of wheat—early rice—laterice system in Shanghai,three experiments on the vitality of Gibberellazeae were carried out in soil pots with an imitation of the paddy fieldconditions in open during 1974-1978.The results of spore germination experiments obtained in 1974 and1975 inducated that both macro-conidia and ascospores with their subs-trata although were immersed in the water layer of the soil pots,theycould maintain their vitality up to 18-20 days.Results of trans-planting...

In accordance with the actual condition of wheat—early rice—laterice system in Shanghai,three experiments on the vitality of Gibberellazeae were carried out in soil pots with an imitation of the paddy fieldconditions in open during 1974-1978.The results of spore germination experiments obtained in 1974 and1975 inducated that both macro-conidia and ascospores with their subs-trata although were immersed in the water layer of the soil pots,theycould maintain their vitality up to 18-20 days.Results of trans-planting the early-and late-rice seedlings into theinoculated water layer of the soil pots throughout the rice growing sea-son showed that the scab fungus could neither oversummer nor over-winter in such water layer of soil pots.Furthermore no viable hiber-nating mycelia were detected from the over wintered rice stubbles fromthe above pots.During the years 1974-1978,observations made on the source of theprimary infection revealed that the perithecia were only to be producedon the overwintered rice stubbles which were collected from the fieldwafter the sowing of wheat,but not on any other rice stubbles whichwere collected from the same field before the sowing of wheat.It is con-sidered that the primary source of infection of the scab disease wascheifly the diseased wheat seeds.

通过1974~1978年的试验证明:麦类赤霉病菌[Gibberella zeae(Schw.)Perch.)的两种孢子,随病残体置于淹水条件下,经18—20天全部失去其发芽力。病菌在以三麦—早稻—后季稻三熟制为主的上海地区,不能在早稻、后季稻水田中越夏越冬,或麦收后侵入水稻,稻收后以菌丝体在稻桩内潜伏越冬。引起稻桩上春季产生麦赤霉病菌子囊壳的初次菌源,不是传自腐生在稻田土表的病菌菌丝体,而主要是来自混在播种材料中的带病麦粒。

 
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