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三基数
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     Pentamerous flowers in the genus Phytolacca have been derived from trimerous flowers-New evidence from the floral organogenesis of Phytolacca dodecandra
     商陆属中五基数花起源于三基数花的新证据——非洲商陆的花器官发生
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     Three.
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     三.
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     OPERATIONS ON FUZZY CARDINAL NUMBERS
     模糊基数的运算
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  tribasic
A model is developed for estimating thermodynamic dissociation constants of tribasic acids in organic solvents, with an example of ethanol solution of citric acid in which the functional groups are neutralized jointly.
      
Hydrogen penetration into thin films of vanadium dioxide from aqueous solutions of mono-, di-, and tribasic alcohols is studied.
      
The phosphate-solubilizing activity of the isolates was first qualitatively evaluated by the formation of halos (clear zones) around the colonies growing on solid medium containing tribasic calcium phosphate as a sole phosphorus source.
      
The adsorption isotherms of polybasic acid dyes (two dibasic dyes and two tribasic dyes) on three kinds of nylon fibers at constant pH (3.5) have been determined at 90 °C.
      
For the tribasic dyes, the stoichiometric behavior was observed only on Nylon-3.
      
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The initiation of the floral organs of Nandina domestica Thunb.(Berberidaceae) is of the trimerouswhorled pattern. Stamens and petals grew out from the lateral bifurcation of the common stamenpetal primordia; but petals underwent retarded periods of growth in their early development. Carpel initiation belongs to the ascidiate type. Some aspects concerning the trimerous floral organs, the origin of petals, stamen insertion pattern and monocarpellary pistil were discussed. In addition the floral ontogenetic...

The initiation of the floral organs of Nandina domestica Thunb.(Berberidaceae) is of the trimerouswhorled pattern. Stamens and petals grew out from the lateral bifurcation of the common stamenpetal primordia; but petals underwent retarded periods of growth in their early development. Carpel initiation belongs to the ascidiate type. Some aspects concerning the trimerous floral organs, the origin of petals, stamen insertion pattern and monocarpellary pistil were discussed. In addition the floral ontogenetic characters among three genera of the Berberidaceae, i.e., Caulophyllum, Podophyllum and Nandina were compared. It is inferred that the trimerouswhorled arrangement and the diversity of carpel initiation were the two unique characters of Nandina.

报道了南天竹(NandinadomesticaThunb.)(小檗科)的花部器官发生。发现该属植物萼片、花瓣和雄蕊的发生式样为三数轮生;雄蕊与花瓣是经它们所具有的共同原基进行侧向分裂而形成的;花瓣发育早期存在迟滞发育的阶段;心皮发生属于瓶状发生类型。讨论了花器官的三基数性质,小檗科花瓣的来源,雄蕊对瓣着生及单心皮雌蕊的形成等问题。对本属的花部个体发育性状同小檗科中已有报道的红毛七属(Caulophylum)、足叶草属(Podophylum)进行了比较,萼片多数轮列与心皮发生的多态现象是南天竹属的独特性状。

Differentiated patterns of flower and inflorescence and diversity of floral structure in Chinese Hydrocharitaeae have been discriminated by field investigation and floral anatomy. Developmental model has also been discussed by the observation under scanning electron microscope(SEM). Floral primordia are initiated on radii verticallately and in actinomorphic way in the groups with trimerous flower,such as Blyxa and Ottelia,which the latter whorl tend to be alternate with the former one. However,they are initiated...

Differentiated patterns of flower and inflorescence and diversity of floral structure in Chinese Hydrocharitaeae have been discriminated by field investigation and floral anatomy. Developmental model has also been discussed by the observation under scanning electron microscope(SEM). Floral primordia are initiated on radii verticallately and in actinomorphic way in the groups with trimerous flower,such as Blyxa and Ottelia,which the latter whorl tend to be alternate with the former one. However,they are initiated irregularly by losing the floral organs partly in the groups with non-trimerous such as Vallisneria,Nechamandra.

通过野外调查 ,结合实体解剖和扫描电镜观察 ,对国产水鳖科植物花和花序的分化式样及花部结构多样性进行了研究 ,并探讨了水鳖科植物的花部发育的基本式样 ,结果表明 ,在花部是三基数的植物中 ,如水筛属 (Blyxa)、水车前属 (Ottelia)等 ,花器官原基以轮状 ,向心发育 ,辐射对称的方式发生 ,后一轮倾向于与前一轮相交替 ;在花部非三基数的植物中 ,如虾子草属 (Nechamandra) ,苦草属 (Vallisneria)等 ,由于部分花器官缺失 ,花器官原基呈不规则发生。

The floral organogenesis of Phytolacca dodecandra L′Her. (Phytolaccaceae) has been observed under both scanning electron microscope (SEM) and light microscope. The primordia of the floral appendage are arranged according to a pentamerous pattern and acropetal succession. Five sepal primordia arise in a 2/5 sequence, and no petal primordia have been observed. The stamen primordia arise centrifugally. The first two pairs arise successively opposite sepal one and two. In the subsequent initiation of inner and outer...

The floral organogenesis of Phytolacca dodecandra L′Her. (Phytolaccaceae) has been observed under both scanning electron microscope (SEM) and light microscope. The primordia of the floral appendage are arranged according to a pentamerous pattern and acropetal succession. Five sepal primordia arise in a 2/5 sequence, and no petal primordia have been observed. The stamen primordia arise centrifugally. The first two pairs arise successively opposite sepal one and two. In the subsequent initiation of inner and outer stamens, P. dodecandra differs from other species in the genus Phytolacca. The four or five carpel primordia arise in rapid succession, usually equal in number and alternating with the inner stamens. The effects of temporal and spatial factors during the floral organogenesis of P. dodecandra are discussed. The data on the androecial ontogeny in P. dodecandra refute the existence of diplostemony in Phytolaccaceae, in which P. dodecandra occupies a pivotal systematic position. The androecial ontogeny in P. dodecandra supports the viewpoint that in the genus Phytolacca pentamerous flowers have been derived from trimerous flowers.

运用扫描电镜和石蜡切片方法对非洲商陆PhytolaccadodecandraL′Her.的花器官发生过程及花器官各部分的位置排列进行了观察。结果表明 :非洲商陆萼片 5枚 ,以螺旋向心方式发生 ;没有观察到花瓣原基的发生 ;雄蕊为螺旋离心方式发生 ,前 4枚雄蕊分 2对出现在对萼位置 ,但此后发生的雄蕊的发生顺序明显区别于其他种 ;心皮 4- 5枚 ,与内部雄蕊互生。本文探讨了时空因素对花器官发生的影响 ,基于对非洲商陆花器官发生的观察 ,否定了“商陆属源于二轮雄蕊样式”的假说 ,并为商陆属中“五基数花起源于三基数花”的观点提供了新的证据

 
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