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Big Endian and Little Endian Representation Different platforms store large multibyte numbers in two different ways.


Big endian overhead amounts to 384 cycles per 1024 byte block, resulting in a reduced throughput of 179 Mbit/s.


Here the commas define separation of each byte arranged in big endian format.


It's 32 bits, it's big endian, and it usually doesn't use any inline assembly.


If a binary file is created on a big endian machine, and read on a little endian, the resulting values will be wildly wrong.

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 There are a lot of investigating on parallel algorithms in database. Since join operation is frequently and commonly used, and it is a costly operation. , optimizing the method for performing join operation is very important. Two new parallel join algorithms are presented in this paper, in order to reduce the complexity of database operations.. These parallel algorithms, based on clustering and grid files, can improve the performance of the join operation by avoiding the expensive partitioning phase inherent... There are a lot of investigating on parallel algorithms in database. Since join operation is frequently and commonly used, and it is a costly operation. , optimizing the method for performing join operation is very important. Two new parallel join algorithms are presented in this paper, in order to reduce the complexity of database operations.. These parallel algorithms, based on clustering and grid files, can improve the performance of the join operation by avoiding the expensive partitioning phase inherent in hash based parallel join algorithms. Simulations and results of the algorithms are also presented.  对数据库运算有很多并行算法。由于联结运算开销大而且使用频繁,所以,联结运算的优化至关重要。作者提出了基于网格文件的两个新的并行算法,分别用于一致关系和下一致关系。因为这里给出的算法避免了当前常用的散列算法中必然的开销很大的划分阶段,所以能够提高联结运算的效率。  The multiclass SVM methods based on binary tree are proposed. The new methods can resolve the unclassifiable region problems in the conventional multiclass SVM methods. To maintain high generalization ability, the most widespread class should be separated at the upper nodes of a binary tree. Hypercuboid and hypersphere class least covers are used to be rules of constructing binary tree. Numerical experiment results show that the multiclass SVM methods are suitable for practical use.  提出一种新的基于二叉树结构的支持向量(SVM)多类分类算法.该算法解决了现有主要算法所存在的不可分区域问题.为了获得较高的推广能力,必须让样本分布广的类处于二叉树的上层节点,才能获得更大的划分空间.所以,该算法采用最小超立方体和最小超球体类包含作为二叉树的生成算法.实验结果表明,该算法具有一定的优越性.  Based on the basic assumptions used in the Sarma method,the sliding body was divided into a series of oblique slices and the recursive equation of interslice forces were derived according to the force equilibrium conditions of slices.In consistence with the principle of maximum thrust force,the problem of searching the minimum factor of safety was transformed into that of searching the maximum residual thrust force.By using the dynamic programming,the problem of dividing the oblique slices was transformed into... Based on the basic assumptions used in the Sarma method,the sliding body was divided into a series of oblique slices and the recursive equation of interslice forces were derived according to the force equilibrium conditions of slices.In consistence with the principle of maximum thrust force,the problem of searching the minimum factor of safety was transformed into that of searching the maximum residual thrust force.By using the dynamic programming,the problem of dividing the oblique slices was transformed into that of multistage decision.The procedure and steps of the optimal decision strategy was given based on the recursive equation of thrust force,with which the combination of oblique slices was optimized resulting in the maximum residual thrust force.Since the solution of the Sarma method was the upperbound in nature,the safety factor thus obtained was the least upperbound solution of slope stability.It was shown that the optimal combination of oblique slices obtained by the dynamic programming agreed well with the theoretical solution of the mechanics of plasticity,and the factor of safety obtained was slightly bigger than that of the rigorous limit equilibrium method of slices with the vertical slices.  基于Sarma法的基本假设,将滑体划分为若干斜条块,由条块力的平衡条件得到条块间推力递推方程。根据推力最大原理,将寻求安全系数最小问题转化为寻求剩余推力最大问题。采用动态规划方法,将斜条块划分问题转化为多阶段决策问题。给出了基于条间推力递推方程的最优决策方法和步骤,对边坡斜条块划分组合进行了优化,找到剩余推力最大的划分组合。由于Sarma法本身是上限解,因此优化得到安全系数本质上是最小上限解。计算结果表明:利用动态规划方法搜索的最优斜条块划分组合,可以充分接近塑性力学解,安全系数一般大于并接近基于垂直条块的严格极限平衡条分法的安全系数。  
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