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     In addition, further grain refining could be obtained by means of repeated heating for several times. The austenite grains of 26Cr2Ni4MoVcould reach 9~10 grade by using the step heating with temperatures 950℃─ 900℃ ─ 950℃─ 900 ℃.
     多次重复加热能进一步细化晶位,26Cr2Ni4MbV钢950℃─900℃─950℃─900℃阶梯式重复加热奥氏体晶粒度可达9~10级。
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     Conclusion Small amount of iodogen repeated ~(125)I labeling assay did not influence the biological activity of rhEndo.
     结论小剂量Iodogen多次重复~(125)I标记不影响rhEndo蛋白的生物学活性。
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     The conditions affected on the reaction were studied. The esterification degree was 98.6% when acetic acid was 0.2mol, glycol monoethyl ether was 0.26mol, reaction time was 80min, Ti(SO_4)_2·4H_2O was 0.8g,oil bath temperature was 120 ℃ and cyclohexane was 15mL. The catalyst could be recovered easily and reused for many times.
     考察了影响该反应的多种因素,于冰醋酸0.2mol,乙二醇单乙醚0.26mol,反应时间80min,Ti(SO4)2·4H2O用量0.8g,油浴温度120℃,15mL环己烷作带水剂,酯化率可达98.6%,且产物色泽好,催化剂易回收,可多次重复使用。
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     The suitable components of the matrix Xi=5.0, X2=3.0 , X3 =10, X4=2.0, X5 =5.0, X6=0.02 were defined after many repeated experiments.
     经过多次重复试验,确定中药膜的最佳配比X,=5.0,XZ=3.0,X。 =10,X;
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     The recovery rate ranges from 94%to 102%. Repeated detection on the same sample gives a result of 2.42×10-6 to 3.00×10-6. The method is convenient to conduct and can exclude the disturbance by a large quantity of vanadium.
     本法回收率在94%~102%之间,对同一试样的多次重复测定,结果在2.42×10-4%~3.00×10-4%间。 方法简单易行,可消除大量钒的干扰。
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     ②multiple stimulation operations;
     ②重复多次增产作业 ;
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     And the catalyst could be used for many times.
     催化剂可重复使用多次
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     ENJOY REPETITION
     喜欢重复
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     multiple pregnancies;
     多次妊娠;
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     and 4) tubes were fertigated on the depth of 40 cm from soil surface (D 40 ).
     4个重复
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  multiplicating
A synchronous detector based on a counter, memory device (RAM or ROM), and multiplicating digital-to-analog converter is described.
      
It is suggested that this increase is mainly attributable to structural proteins of cellular and subcellular elements of multiplicating malignant cells.
      


In 1928 Curt demonstrated that non-human schistosome cercariae are capable of producing dermatitis in man. Since then many species of avian and mammalian schistosomes have been shown to produce similar disease in different parts of the world. In 1958 a kind of schistosome dermatitis locally known as 'Ya-Mu-Lan' (meaning duck-saliva-disease) was discovered in Foochow, Fukien Province. The infection occurred among farmers who waded in canals and ditches, while taking care of ducks in their natural environment....

In 1928 Curt demonstrated that non-human schistosome cercariae are capable of producing dermatitis in man. Since then many species of avian and mammalian schistosomes have been shown to produce similar disease in different parts of the world. In 1958 a kind of schistosome dermatitis locally known as 'Ya-Mu-Lan' (meaning duck-saliva-disease) was discovered in Foochow, Fukien Province. The infection occurred among farmers who waded in canals and ditches, while taking care of ducks in their natural environment. The same dermatitis was reported from Yung-siao district bordering Kwangtung. In Szechwan a similar disease was reported by T. C. Pap (1957) where it was known as 'Ya-Si-Feng' (meaning duck-feces-disease). From the endemic area in Foochow, 10, 145 snails belong to the species Lymnaea (Radix) plicatula Benson were examined and a kind of ocellated fork-tailed cercaria was discovered. Another closely related snail, Lymnaea (Fossaria) ollula Gould was also found infected but the incidence of infection was somewhat lower. Experiments were conducted to infect laboratory reared ducklings and full grown ducks, the feces of which were examined to be free from schistosome eggs. Ten to twelve days later edult worms were recovered in the mesenteric and portal veins and a few specimens were found in the lungs and heart. Lymnaea (Radix) plicatula were also experimentally infected with miracidia hatching out from eggs secured from the infected duck.Studies on the morphology of both the adult worms and the developmental larval stages were made and the details are reported in the present communication.Our observation indicates that the worm belongs to a species of Trichobilharzia different from any other known species. The name Trichobilharzia paoi sp. nov. is proposed after Prof. T. C. Pap of Chungking Medical College, Szechwan.Description of the adult worm:Male: Body slender, total length 5.35-7.31mm. width 0.076-0.095mm. Oral sucker measures 0.051-0.060ram×0.043-0.060mm in diameter. Ventral sucker, the surface of which is armed with small spines, measures 0.051-0.060mm in diameter. Oesophagus. bifurcates anterior to the ventral sucker at a distance about anterior two-thirds between oral sucker and acetabulum. Intestinal caeca iun posteriorly on two sides and reunite behind the gynaecophoric canal, which is a longitudinal slit 0.237-0.380mm in length and 0.123-0.152mm in width. Gynaecophoric canal is foimed by inward folding of two lateral sides of the body bearing numerous spines. Testes round, 70-90 in number arranged in a single longitudinal row. Their diameter ranges 0.051-0.064mm. Seminal vesicle occupies an area from a level immediately posterior to the ventral sucker to the fore margin of gyneacophoric canal. It measures 0.172-0.447mm in length and 0.038-0.055mm in width.Female: More delicate than male, length 3.38-4.89mm, greatest width 0.076-0.114mm. Oral sucker terminal with mouth openning on its ventral aspect, diameter 0.051-0.056mm×0.038-0.051mm. Ventral sucker, a small solid organ, measures 0.030-0.040mm×0.035-0.043mm in diameter. Oesophagus bifurcates at some distance before the acetabulum. Intestinal ceaca reunite behind the ovary, forming a single caecum passing to near the posterior end of body. Ovary spiral in shape with a length 0.253-0.352mm and a width 0.021-0.025mm. Seminal receptacle elongated in form, is connected to the ovary on its posterior aspect. A Laurer's canal is present. It originates from Seminal receptacle and opens to the exterior. The oviduct starts from the ovary, runs parallel with the vitalline duct to the anterior of ovary, where they unite together forming the ootype, surrounded on all sides by a cluster of unicellular Mehlis glands. The uterus is short and contains only one egg. Female genital pore is immediately postacetabular. Egg is spindle or elongate oval in shape with a sharp curved spine at one end. Egg measures 0.236-0.316mm×0.068-0.112mm. Avian schistosomes parasitising domestic and wild ducks and other birds belong to the subfamily Bilharziellinae Price, 1929, and family Schistosomatidae Looss, 1899. They were formerly considered to belong to two genera, namely Pseudobilharxiella Eismont, 1929 and Trichobilharzia Skrjabin and Zkharow, 1920. Yamaguti (1958) consideted Pseudobilharziella to be the synonym of Trichobilharzia and listed 22 species in his "Systema helminthum". Recent additions of some new species made up the total of about 25 species. In comparing the structure, it is found that the Chinese species belongs to those duck schistosomes with spindle-shaped eggs. Among them the most closely related is T. yokogawai (Oiso, 1927), from which it differs in several important aspects, such as the size of the worm, the extent of gynaecophoric canal, number of testes and size of eggs. Their different characters are tabulated as follows:T. yokogawai T. paoi n. sp. Male Body length 2.0-2.75mm 5.35-7.31mm (Foochow specimen)average 2.336mm 4.0-10.3mm (Chungking specimen) Position of immediately behind 0.371-0.495mm behind gynaecophoric Acetabulum acetabulum (Foochow specimen) canal 0.35-0.57mm behindacetabulum (Chungking specimen) T. yokogawai T. paoi n. spLength of 0.2mm 0.247-038mm (Foochow specimen)gynaecophoric 0.35-0.41mm (Chungking specimen)canalNumber of 50-70 70-90 (Foochow specimen)testes 50-85 (Chungking specimen)Size of eggs Length 0.204-0.238mm 0.236-0.316mmWidth 0.051-0.068mm 0.068-0.112mm (Foochow specimen)0.215mm0.075mm (Chungking specimen)From the above table it can be noticed that these two species can be distinguished by these essential differences.T. paoi is, furthermore, differentiated from T. physellae, another closely related species by the number of testes, which is about 210-240 in the latter and are arranged in two to three rows. Tanaka (1960) reported another duck schistosome from Oki Island, which he identified as T. physellae. According to this auther, the male has only 52-78 testes, the seminal vesicle is much shorter reaching only about half distance between gyaaecophoric canal and the acetabulum. Another striking difference is that the intestinal ceaca of T. physellae from Oki Island reunite at the region anterior to the seminal vesicle, while in T. paoi they reunite behind the Seminal receptacle at the level anterior to the gynaecophoric canal.Macfarlane (1944, 1949) and Olivier (1949) have shown that the dermatitis produced by avian schistosomes is a sensitization phenomenon. They have demonstrated striking differences in the reaction of skin of infected animals to the penetration of cercariae in the initial and subsequent infections, and presented evidence for the ideathat human cases also become increasingly allergic to the protein of invading schistosome cercariae. In order to make further inquiries on this problem and to investigate whether Chinese species of Trichobilharzia will induce similar reactions in the mammalean host, experiments were conducted to infect laboratory-reared white mice and biopsies made of the skin in the first and also after a series of repeated infections It is with the purpese to observe the behavior of the cercariae after having penetrated into the body of an abnormal host, and to trace the course of their migration and destiny.1. Tissue reaction in primary infection: Histological sections were made on biopsies on various intervals after infection, one and half hour, 3 hours, 5 hours, 8 hours, 21 hours etc. At one and half to three hours after exposure, the cercariae already penetrated the epidermis. Some of them were in the hair follicles. A few arrived at the corium. Those just penetrated Corneum stratum were found lying there horizontally, and usually there was a small tunnel or cavity, formed among the epithelial cells, surrounding each cercaria. Such phenomenon is similar to that as observed by Gordon and Griffiths (1951) on the behavior of the cercaria of Schistosoma mansoni. Olivier and Weinstein (1953) also observed the same in Trichobilharzia ocellata. During early hours of invasion there was apparently very little cellular response to the cercariae. Those, which invaded the corium, were surrounded by a small number of leucocytes. Apparently the cercariae were still in good condition. They were probably living at the time of biopsy as indicated by their intact cell structure being well stained, 21 hours after infection, the tissue shows more infiltration of white cells and histiocytes. More of them gathered around the cercariae, some of which appeared as having signs of histolysis, while others seem still quite normal. Observations made on tissues fixed at later hours after infection indicated that even in the primary exposure, great majority of the invading cercariae were already arrested and immobilized in the epidermis and not able to invade further into the body.A small part of the cercariae, however, were found to migrate to the lung tissue. They were evidently being carried by the blood stream to the new site, where they produced considerable tissue damage and hemmorrhage. In our experiments with mice infected 20 hours previously, petechial hemorrhages were present on the surface of the lung. Infection experiments were conducted on 19 mice, each of which was infected with 80 to 250 cercariae. Dissections of the animals were made at various intervals from one day to about a month since exposure. The largest number of worms and hemorrhagic spots were found on the lung tissue during the second and third day after infection. Of the 19 mice, 15 were found to show pulmonary lesions. The number for each mouse ranges from one to 86. From eleven of them, worms were recovered from the tissue and from each mouse from one to 15 worms were counted. When the dissections were made during the first three days, the worms were still living. As time elasped, only formation of nodules were found. Sectioned nodules contained worms which were either dead or moribund.2. Tissue reaction in repeated infections: A

1.在福建省各地流行着一种称为“鸭姆涎”的血吸虫皮肤疹,特別在鸭群放牧的地区,农民下水,手足发痒。这种皮肤疹的病原,经調查系一种寄生于家鴨体內的新种血吸虫,定名为包氏血吸虫。Trichobilharzia paoi Sp. Nov. 2.本虫的雄虫及雌虫經詳細叙述。其寄居的位置也經确定以門靜脉为最多,其次为腸系膜靜脉,并在肺部及心脏也有寄居。3.本虫的中間宿主为两种椎实螺Lymnaea(Radix)plicatula Benson及Lymnaea(Fossaria)ollula Gould。4.发育各期均在实驗室內詳經現察,包括卵、毛蚴、母胞蚴、子胞蚴和尾蚴,及成虫名阶段的发育。各期的构造經詳細的叙述。尾蚴的习性也經观察和叙述。5.本虫的分类問题經詳細討論。6.尾蚴侵入实驗动物——小白鼠后所引起的組织反应,經详细研究。实驗曾經举行比較初次感染和重复感染后组织对于侵入的虫体所引起的不同程度的反应。实驗証明初次感染的,幼虫能侵入表皮、皮层及真皮,白血球浸潤的現象较为微弱,虫体在一两天內尚是存活?啻胃腥镜慕M織內反应较为强烈,白血球以及組織吞噬細胞包圍虫体的更多?嫣宓妮喞炔幻飨员硐植皇谴婊畹那榭觥N豺是秩胄“资筇迥...

1.在福建省各地流行着一种称为“鸭姆涎”的血吸虫皮肤疹,特別在鸭群放牧的地区,农民下水,手足发痒。这种皮肤疹的病原,经調查系一种寄生于家鴨体內的新种血吸虫,定名为包氏血吸虫。Trichobilharzia paoi Sp. Nov. 2.本虫的雄虫及雌虫經詳細叙述。其寄居的位置也經确定以門靜脉为最多,其次为腸系膜靜脉,并在肺部及心脏也有寄居。3.本虫的中間宿主为两种椎实螺Lymnaea(Radix)plicatula Benson及Lymnaea(Fossaria)ollula Gould。4.发育各期均在实驗室內詳經現察,包括卵、毛蚴、母胞蚴、子胞蚴和尾蚴,及成虫名阶段的发育。各期的构造經詳細的叙述。尾蚴的习性也經观察和叙述。5.本虫的分类問题經詳細討論。6.尾蚴侵入实驗动物——小白鼠后所引起的組织反应,經详细研究。实驗曾經举行比較初次感染和重复感染后组织对于侵入的虫体所引起的不同程度的反应。实驗証明初次感染的,幼虫能侵入表皮、皮层及真皮,白血球浸潤的現象较为微弱,虫体在一两天內尚是存活?啻胃腥镜慕M織內反应较为强烈,白血球以及組織吞噬細胞包圍虫体的更多?嫣宓妮喞炔幻飨员硐植皇谴婊畹那榭觥N豺是秩胄“资筇迥?有一部分能侵入肺部,产生出血斑点及結节。結节內有虫体凋炘^明首次感染的小白鼠侵入肺部的虫体,出血斑点及結节均更多,重复感染的逐次減少。多次重复感染后肺部找不到虫体或找到极少数的虫体和出血斑点。7.本文就实验的結果进行討論。

By different kinds of experimental methods we got some new understanding for the action and mechanism of bonding clay for high strength shell mould. Then we recommend the alumina, instead of silica powder and other kind of clays, to be used for high strength shell mould production, and thus substantially improve the high temperature characteristics of the shell mould. Instead of ammonium chloride the polymerism alumium chloride is used as hardening agent, thus we greatly improve the working condition of the...

By different kinds of experimental methods we got some new understanding for the action and mechanism of bonding clay for high strength shell mould. Then we recommend the alumina, instead of silica powder and other kind of clays, to be used for high strength shell mould production, and thus substantially improve the high temperature characteristics of the shell mould. Instead of ammonium chloride the polymerism alumium chloride is used as hardening agent, thus we greatly improve the working condition of the workers and considerably reduce the corrosion of the equipments. Adopting the new technology in which the waterglass and aluminum chloride mixing respectively with alumina and silica are used as paints,and they are painted to the mould alternately, thus we put an end to the old repeated processes of air hardening and chemical hardening, and raise up the productive efficiency.

通过多种试验方法,对高强度模壳用增强剂粘土的作用机理初步有了新的认识,并推荐铝矾 土代替石英粉和其他粘土用于高强度模壳生产,大大提高了模壳的高温性能。 采用碱式氯化铝代替氯化铵作硬化剂,大大改善了工人的劳动条件,减少了设备腐蚀;采用 水玻璃和碱式氯化铝分别与铝矾土和石英粉配制的涂料交替浸涂的新工艺,革除了自然干燥与化 学硬化两道多次重复的工序,从而提高了生产效率。

By different kinds of experimental methods we got some new understanding for the action and mechanism of bonding clay for high strength shell mould. Then we recommend the alumina, instead of silica powder and other kind of clays, to be used for high strength shell mould production, and thus substantially improve the high temperature characteristics of the shell mould.Instead of ammonium chloride the polymerism alumium chloride is used as hardening agent, thus we greatly improve the working condition of the workers...

By different kinds of experimental methods we got some new understanding for the action and mechanism of bonding clay for high strength shell mould. Then we recommend the alumina, instead of silica powder and other kind of clays, to be used for high strength shell mould production, and thus substantially improve the high temperature characteristics of the shell mould.Instead of ammonium chloride the polymerism alumium chloride is used as hardening agent, thus we greatly improve the working condition of the workers and considerably reduce the corrosion of the equipments. Adopting the new technology in which the waterglass and aluminum chloride mixing respectively with alumina and silica are used as paints,and they are painted to the mould alternately, thus we put an end to the old repeated processes of air hardening and chemical hardening, and raise up the productive efficiency.

通过多种试验方法,对高强度模壳用增强剂粘土的作用机理初步有了新的认识,并推荐铝矾土代替石英粉和其他粘土用于高强度模壳生产,大大提高了模壳的高温性能。 采用碱式氯化铝代替氯化铵作硬化剂,大大改善了工人的劳动条件,减少了设备腐蚀;采用水玻璃和碱式氯化铝分别与铝矾土和石英粉配制的涂料交替浸涂的新工艺,革除了自然干燥与化学硬化两道多次重复的工序,从而提高了生产效率。

 
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