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效应
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Using acetic, sulfuric, hydrochloric, phosphoric and perchloric acid as acidifying agent, gelation time of monostlicic acid of different concentration at various pH was determined. All the log t--pH curves were of N-Shape. The pH value at the minimum point of each curve shifted upward and to- ward the left as concentration of silicic acid decreased. With acetic acid as acidifying agent, the gelation curve had the same tendency when concentra- tion of silicic acid changed, but with a strong acid, as hydrochloric...

Using acetic, sulfuric, hydrochloric, phosphoric and perchloric acid as acidifying agent, gelation time of monostlicic acid of different concentration at various pH was determined. All the log t--pH curves were of N-Shape. The pH value at the minimum point of each curve shifted upward and to- ward the left as concentration of silicic acid decreased. With acetic acid as acidifying agent, the gelation curve had the same tendency when concentra- tion of silicic acid changed, but with a strong acid, as hydrochloric or sulfuric, no such shift was observed at the maximum point. When log t of the minimum points of each set of gelation time curves were plotted against the corresponding log T_(?), straight lines were always obtained. However, the slope of the lines was about -3 instead of -2 as required by the theoretical equation. This is found to be due to the effect of the salt formed in the process of acidification of sodium monosilicate. When the concentration of sodium monosilicate used was kept constant and different amounts of a salt corresponding to the acid used as acidifying agent were added, the gelation curves obtained indicated that, in case when either hydrochloric acid or sulfuric acid was used as acidifying agent, the added salt had a little pro- motion effect at the maximum point but did not change the pH value. However, with the minimum points of all the curves and the maximum of that of acetic acid as acidifying agent, they all shifted downward and rightward. When log t was plotted against log T_s, straight line was also obtained, with a slope of about -1, indicating that getlation time of monosi- licic acid is inversely proportional to the first power of the concentration of salt. When the concentration of salt was kept constant and that of silicic acid varied, pH of the maximum points of all gelation curves no matter which acid was used as acidifying agent remained constant, while that of the minimum points changed but a little. And in all cases, when log t was plotted against log T_(?), a straight line was always obtained, the slope of which was -2, indicating experimental results were in complete accord with our theoretical expression. When the effect of added salt is included, the expression should be modified slightly and takes the following form: log t=log C'--(2+n')log T_A--log (1+β_1[H~+]+β_2[H~+]~2+β_3[H~+]~3)~2/β_2β_3 [H~+]~3 --log(β_1/β_2+[H~+]~2).

以乙酸、硫酸、盐酸、磷酸及高氯酸为胶凝剂,测定了不同浓度单硅酸在不同pH的胶凝时间,得到了一系列硅酸浓度与胶凝时间的曲线。曲线皆为N形。所有曲线的最低点和乙酸曲线的最高点的pH值,皆随硅酸浓度的减少而向左上方移动,但盐酸和硫酸曲线最高点pH值无明显变化。各组曲线最低点的log t和相应的log T_A昔为直綫关系,但直线斜率昔等于-3,而不是表达式中的-2。这是由於酸化过程所产生的盐的效应。在单硅酸浓度恒定时,加入不同量与所用胶凝剂相当的盐,从所得的胶凝曲綫表明,盐对发盐酸及硫酸为胶凝剂的曲线最高点略有促进作用,而不改变pH值。但所有曲线最低点及乙酸曲线最高点,昔随各种盐浓度的增加而向右下方移动。每组曲线最低点的log t和log T_s皆为直线关系,直线斜率在-1左右,表示盐浓度与胶凝时间的一次方成反此。在固定盐浓度,改变单硅酸浓度的实验中,所有盐酸、硫酸、硝酸、乙酸及磷酸的各套胶凝曲线的最高点pH值皆不改变,而最低点的pH值只微有不同,每组曲线的不论最低点或最高点,它们的log t和log T_A皆有直线关系,其直綫的斜率都在-2左右,和表达式的要求完全符合。故包括盐效应的硅酸聚合...

以乙酸、硫酸、盐酸、磷酸及高氯酸为胶凝剂,测定了不同浓度单硅酸在不同pH的胶凝时间,得到了一系列硅酸浓度与胶凝时间的曲线。曲线皆为N形。所有曲线的最低点和乙酸曲线的最高点的pH值,皆随硅酸浓度的减少而向左上方移动,但盐酸和硫酸曲线最高点pH值无明显变化。各组曲线最低点的log t和相应的log T_A昔为直綫关系,但直线斜率昔等于-3,而不是表达式中的-2。这是由於酸化过程所产生的盐的效应。在单硅酸浓度恒定时,加入不同量与所用胶凝剂相当的盐,从所得的胶凝曲綫表明,盐对发盐酸及硫酸为胶凝剂的曲线最高点略有促进作用,而不改变pH值。但所有曲线最低点及乙酸曲线最高点,昔随各种盐浓度的增加而向右下方移动。每组曲线最低点的log t和log T_s皆为直线关系,直线斜率在-1左右,表示盐浓度与胶凝时间的一次方成反此。在固定盐浓度,改变单硅酸浓度的实验中,所有盐酸、硫酸、硝酸、乙酸及磷酸的各套胶凝曲线的最高点pH值皆不改变,而最低点的pH值只微有不同,每组曲线的不论最低点或最高点,它们的log t和log T_A皆有直线关系,其直綫的斜率都在-2左右,和表达式的要求完全符合。故包括盐效应的硅酸聚合而成凝胶的表达式改进为:

In this paper represents a device for measuring flocculation behavior

本文介绍一种由作者设计的浊度法测定絮凝特性的装置,该装置用于选择性絮凝工艺的研究。文中对其构造、原理作了阐述。采用自动记录仪(LZ3—200型)描绘出用改性型聚合物作用的赤铁矿絮凝沉降曲线,显示出非常清晰的絮凝特性,表明这套装置可用于评价絮凝效应。此装置具有结构简单、操作方便以及自动记录等特点。

Adsorption experiments of cadmium on prepared samples of Chinese clay minerals were done. The adsorption isotherms of cadmium on montmorillonite, illite and kaolinite were found to be of the Langmuir-type equation in a wide range of Cd concentrations. Effects of temperature, contact time, pH, particle size and mineral types were also studied. A diagram of dissolution-adsorption-precipitation zones was presented. pH values for rapid adsorption enchancement were in agreement with the calculated pH values for precipitation...

Adsorption experiments of cadmium on prepared samples of Chinese clay minerals were done. The adsorption isotherms of cadmium on montmorillonite, illite and kaolinite were found to be of the Langmuir-type equation in a wide range of Cd concentrations. Effects of temperature, contact time, pH, particle size and mineral types were also studied. A diagram of dissolution-adsorption-precipitation zones was presented. pH values for rapid adsorption enchancement were in agreement with the calculated pH values for precipitation of carbonates. It seems there exists a correlation of "additivity of saturation adsorption capacities" for different particle sizes or different types of the minerals.

以我国各地典型粘土矿物制备标准样品,对镉进行吸附实验,得到蒙脱石、伊利石、高岭石三种矿物的吸附等温线,在广泛浓度范围内符合Langmuir型方程式。研究了温度、接触时间、PH值、粒径、矿种等对吸附的影响效应。提出了镉的溶解-吸附-沉淀区域图,吸附急剧增强和开始发生碳酸镉沉淀的PH值是一致的。发现对不同粒径和不同矿种都存在“饱和吸附值加和现象”。 对湘江中游及上游天然底质样品以化学分离法逐级除去碳酸盐、有机物、金属水合氧化物等组分,以各级样品进行镉的吸附实验。根据吸附等温线和饱和吸附值可以判断不同组分在吸附中的贡献,发现这与各组分相对含量直接有关。 应用本文提出的工作方法。有可能建立天然水体中吸附过程的定量化学模式。

 
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