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下游企业     
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  downstream firm
     The Effect of Vertical Integration on R&D Expenditure of the Downstream Firm
     纵向一体化对下游企业R&D投资的效应
短句来源
     Subsidiary corporation B is a downstream firm that produces final goods using intermediate goods and capital as input.
     子公司 B是下游企业 ,用中间商品和资本作为输入生产最终商品 .
短句来源
     It is shown that,after the vertical integration, the R&D expenditure and the output of the downstream firm,the industry profit,the consumer's surplus and the social welfare are all increased.
     研究表明 ,纵向一体化之后 ,下游企业的R&D投资和产品产量、行业利润、消费者剩余和社会总福利均增加。
短句来源
     When an upstream and a downstream firm exist in the market,vertical integration can increase the upstream R&D expenditure,the downstream output,and the industry profit.
     市场上存在一个上游和一个下游企业时,纵向一体化能使上游企业的R&D投资、下游企业的产品产量和行业利润均增加。
短句来源
     The downstream firm can reduce its product's cost through R&D in a system composed of an upstream and a downstream firm.
     在由一个上游和一个下游企业组成的体系中 ,下游企业通过R&D可降低产品成本。
短句来源
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  downstream firms
     If domestic government improved R&D subsidy rate, domestic upstream firm′s R&D level,industrial output,profit and downstream firms′ profit would increase.
     如果国内政府提高上游R&D补贴率,那么国内上游企业的R&D水平、行业产量、利润以及国外下游企业利润都会增加.
短句来源
     Application of GAHP-Grey Relative Degree Analysis Method for the Selection of Downstream Firms in the Environment of VMI
     VMI环境下GAHP-灰色关联分析法在下游企业选择中的应用
短句来源
     This article advances the index system for the vendors to select the downstream firms in the environment of VMI.
     本文提出了VMI环境中供应商选择下游企业的指标体系。
短句来源
     When domestic consumers purchased final products,R&D subsidy rate and total subsidy expenditure would increase with the number of foreign downstream firms,the technology efficiency of upstream firm and the percentage of domestic consumers.
     当国内消费者购买最终产品时,增加国外下游企业数量、改善上游企业技术效率、扩大国内对最终产品的消费比例,都会导致国内政府提高R&D补贴率和补贴总量.
短句来源
     The upstream firm provides an input to the downstream firms, which engage in output competition on the market.
     上游垄断企业为下游企业提供投入品,而下游企业在市场上进行产量竞争;
短句来源
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  downstream enterprise
     The Revelation and the Effect of the Upstream Monopolist on the R&D Investment of the Downstream Enterprise
     上游垄断对下游企业R&D投入的效应分析与启示
短句来源
     Built up the supply chain respectively in chapter 5 before practice the mode of VMI in front and back of supply chain is whole, the list price, cost and the profits models of the supplier and its downstream business enterprise, pass in front and back of comparison analyzed the implement of the mode of VMI expect and carry out a period of time after is the whole supply chain, supplier and its downstream enterprise cost, profits, purchase the influence of the price;
     第五章中分别建立了供应链在实行VMI模式前后的供应链整体、供应商及其下游企业的定价、成本及利润模型,通过前后的比较分析了VMI模式的实施前期和实施一段时间后对供应链整体、供应商及其下游企业成本、利润、购买价格、订购量的影响;
短句来源
     However, The supplier's economical effect that is influenced on by VMI strategy is debated under a way, in spite of the downstream enterprise's economical effect can be enhanced greatly.
     尽管没有人置疑VMI策略给供应链下游企业带来的显而易见的效益,但是人们对于VMI策略给供应商造成影响却一直争论不休。
短句来源
     Hence, in order to make the whole supply chain to be better and better, both supplier and downstream enterprise must be cooperated honestly.
     从长远的角度来看,只有上下游企业的真诚合作才能够保证供应链整体效益的提高和健康发展。
短句来源
     The authors analyzes the effect of the R&D investment of the downstream enterprise on the floating-price contracts and fixed-price contracts through establishing the model of the curnot competition between the upstream monopolist and the downstream enterprises.
     构建了一个上游企业垄断、下游两企业进行古诺竞争的模型,分析在浮动契约和固定契约下,下游企业R&D投入的效应。
短句来源
  “下游企业”译为未确定词的双语例句
     (3)A analysis for the cost structure of supply chain;
     (3)供应链上下游企业和整个供应链的成本构成分析;
短句来源
     The goal of the adjustment of resources tax is to promoting the mining and using efficiency of enterprise.
     国家调整资源税的意图,是希望资源开采型企业提高资源的开采效率,资源产品的下游企业提高资源的利用效率。
短句来源
     The enterprise at each node in the supply chain make the production and supply decision only on the basis of information from down river node.
     具体来说,供应链的各节点企业往往只根据来自相邻的下游企业的需求信息进行生产和供应决策,需求信息的不真实性会沿着供应链逆流而上,产生逐级放大的现象。
短句来源
     The Study of Cooperation among Downstream Enterprises in the Supply Chain
     供应链下游企业合作关系研究
短句来源
     3. connected with chains of other enterprises' and other industries'. This Chain enables the enterprise to save purchasing cost and transportation cost, lift the speed during meeting with the demands of the market , and consequently lift the competitiveness of the enterprise.
     3.电子商务将上下游企业组成产业供应链,并且与其他企业和产业的供应链相连接,组成动态的、虚拟的,全球网络化的供应链,真正做到了降低企业采购成本和物流成本,提高企业对市场和最终顾客需求的反应速度,提高企业的竞争力。
短句来源
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  downstream firm
A downstream firm D produces a product that can incorporate a feature covered by the patent.
      
Alternatively, the upstream monopolist could solve the commitment problem by contracting with a downstream firm exclusively.
      
But this action would lower the profits of the first downstream firm, thereby making it reluctant to sign such a contract in the first place.
      
Because the hiring downstream firm benefits from a decrease in its transformation cost, its demand on the intermediate market increases.
      
Finally, the merging downstream firm will be more aggressive as it is operating at a lower marginal cost.
      
更多          
  downstream firms
The Nash equilibria of locations of an upstream and two downstream firms are completely defined in the the space of parameters "transport cost" and "intensity of vertical linkages".
      
In each case, there is a correlation between the locations of upstream and downstream firms.
      
This paper examines the strategic use of forward contracts in an industry where downstream firms must buy an essential input from imperfectly competitive upstream suppliers.
      
We study a model where a monopolistic upstream firm engages in R>amp;amp;D and sells advanced abatement technology to polluting downstream firms.
      
We consider the situation in which downstream firms have heterogeneous abatement technologies and an upstream monopolist performs input price discrimination against them.
      
更多          
  downstream competitors
Alternatively, such communication between downstream competitors might be construed to violate the antitrust laws.
      
Rather, as will be discussed below, it is the opinions of the customers of the downstream competitors that are most relevant.
      
This result holds when there are multiple downstream competitors as well.
      
The most important opinions are those of the customers of the downstream competitors.
      
When the monopolist of an input indispensable in this sense integrates downstream, it can make life difficult for remaining downstream competitors.
      
更多          


This paper analyzes the effects on vertical meaders in several typical micro-economicsituation and gives some advisable conclusions which are conducive to the meager action. The productionfunction includes fixed-preportional function and variable-proportional function. Some importantconclusions are also drawn in this paper

对在企业垂直兼并中,当上下游企业分别处于典型的微现市场环境时所具有的不同效果及其动因进行了分析。对企业生产函数分为固定比例和可变比例函数两种情况进行了讨论。

The share proportion of researchers in high-tech firm has lasting incentives to develop their research and the firm value.But high share proportion does not always mean strong incentive. We must note the difference between paying for performance and paying for effort. The incentives of researchers result from both theaffection of paying for performance and the marginal productivity of effort. Subject to both the fixed appraised value of the research achievements and the optimum scale of the firm, the former...

The share proportion of researchers in high-tech firm has lasting incentives to develop their research and the firm value.But high share proportion does not always mean strong incentive. We must note the difference between paying for performance and paying for effort. The incentives of researchers result from both theaffection of paying for performance and the marginal productivity of effort. Subject to both the fixed appraised value of the research achievements and the optimum scale of the firm, the former affection goes up while the latter falls as the researcher's share proportion increases. We can increase the researcher's share proportion by either adjusting the capital structure or by spinning off the manufacture or distribution units in the chain. But it is not sure that this share proportion increase will result in the improvement of incentives. We must pay more attentions to the details.

高科技企业中科研人员的持股比例 ,对激励科研人员进一步开发科研成果和企业价值具有持续的作用 ,但这并不是说持股比例越高 ,对科研人员的激励作用就越大。在激励中须区分绩效和努力这两个不同的概念 ,对科研人员的激励是其绩效影响和边际产出影响综合作用的结果 ,在一定的科研成果的评估价值和企业最佳资产规模的共同约束下 ,这两种影响随着持股比例的变化而此长彼消。通过改变资本结构或将生产、销售环节分离为下游企业的方法 ,能提高科研人员的持股比例 ,但这并不意味着一定能提高激励的作用 ,而必须具体问题具体分析

Each firm can reduce its product's cost through R&D in a system composed of an upstream and a downstream firm. This paper studied how the R&D investments and the downstream output vary with vertical integration. It is shown that, after the vertical integration, each firm's R&D investment, the downstream output, the industry profit, the consumer surplus and the social welfare are all increased. Before the vertical integration, the lack of the R&D investments and downstream output is due to the fact that each...

Each firm can reduce its product's cost through R&D in a system composed of an upstream and a downstream firm. This paper studied how the R&D investments and the downstream output vary with vertical integration. It is shown that, after the vertical integration, each firm's R&D investment, the downstream output, the industry profit, the consumer surplus and the social welfare are all increased. Before the vertical integration, the lack of the R&D investments and downstream output is due to the fact that each firm's decision does not consider its counterpart's profit. A special example was given to further demonstrate the results of this paper.

在由一个上游和一个下游企业组成的体系中 ,每个企业通过 R&D可降低产品成本 .研究了企业 R&D投资和下游产品产量随纵向一体化的变动情况 ,结果表明 ,纵向一体化之后 ,每个企业的 R&D投资和下游产品产量、行业利润、消费者剩余和社会总福利均增加 .在纵向一体化之前 ,R&D投资和下游产品产量较少的原因是每个企业作出决策时没有考虑另一个企业的利润 .以一个特例对研究结果作进一步说明

 
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