Considering the density baroclinic effect caused by the salty water invasion, the salinity field computation is added in the hydrodynamic model to make the vertical velocity distribution better representing the practical situation.

Because higher salt water brought by the saltwater intrusion lies in the bottom layer of the north coast, its baroclinic effect induces the transverse current at bottom layer flows from north to south which advects horizontally the high concentration sediments from north to south coast, it makes the turbidity maximum zone lie in the bottom of south coast.

The high-salinity water brought by the salt water intrusion lies in the bottom layer of the north coast, and its baroclinic effect induces the bottom current to flow from north to south, conveying horizontally the high concentration sediment from north to south coast, which converges at the bottom layer of the south coast, so the sediment concentration at the south coast is larger than the one at the north coast and the maximum turbidity zone lies in the bottom of the south coast.

The results show that the anticycloniccirculation in the southern SCS is mostly driven by the southwest monsoon, and its intensity is strengthened by baroclinic effect;

Three new pumping factors due to baroclinic effects are derived in the solution of vertical velocity at the top of the boundary layer. The first is thermal wind deformation, the second, thermal wind vorticity, and the third, the cross term of thermal wind vorticity.

An approach combining adaptive unstructured grids and the high order Godunov type scheme based on the finite volume method is applied to simulate the evolution of the interface between two layers of fluid with different densities. A detailed evolution of vortex array induced by baroclinic effects on the interface is presented.

This paper presents a 3-D current numerical model for the Yangtze River estuary with baroclinic-diagnosis mode in vertical σ coordinate system. A vertical eddy-viscosity coefficient is obtained from the advanced k-kl turbulence closure model, and the density baroclinic effects are embodied by the 2-D invariable-uneven salinity field.

On the basis of long-time observation data, the dynamic structure of Yellow and East China Seas Circulation is diagnostically calculated with all forcing (including surface wind stress, tide, thermal structure) in summer.

Although primarily determined by geography, baroclinic effects significantly modified the inclination of the ellipses.

Differences in the water vapor fluxes associated with each mode from one season to the next are depicted and related to baroclinic effects and monsoonal behavior where they occur.

The baroclinic and combined barotropic-baroclinic stability analyses show that the baroclinic effects are not important in tropics.

Accordingly, the newly-born extratropical system may strengthen through baroclinic effects.

This may be attnbuted to baroclinic effects close to the bottom.

The effects of baroclinicity on the geostrophic momentum Ekman flow are investigated in this paper. By making use of the two-variable singular perturbation method, the uniformly valid asymptotic solutions of the first two orders of wind structure and the vertical velocity at the top of the boundary layer are obtained. The baroclinic effects are clearly reflected in these solutions. Especially, the first-order corrections of the solutions are completely induced by thermal wind. Three new pumping factors due to...

The effects of baroclinicity on the geostrophic momentum Ekman flow are investigated in this paper. By making use of the two-variable singular perturbation method, the uniformly valid asymptotic solutions of the first two orders of wind structure and the vertical velocity at the top of the boundary layer are obtained. The baroclinic effects are clearly reflected in these solutions. Especially, the first-order corrections of the solutions are completely induced by thermal wind. Three new pumping factors due to baroclinic effects are derived in the solution of vertical velocity at the top of the boundary layer. The first is thermal wind deformation, the second, thermal wind vorticity, and the third, the cross term of thermal wind vorticity. It is pointed out that only in such baroclinic systems of horizontally nonuniform temperature gradient as frontal zones will the three new pumping factors come into effect. Furthermore, the dynamic properties of the three pumping factors are carefully analysed with respect to a frontal zone. The quantitative results of the baroclinic effects will appear in the next paper.

According to the order analysis of each dynamic factor which affects thecirculation of the northeastern South China Sea (SCS), Taiwan Strait and its adjacentwaters,a divisional area of barotropic and baroclinic couple model is set up based onHurlburt & Thompson's numerical model, so that the violently changed topographiceffect of continental shelf and slope on the circulation of marginal sea can be shown.The model is employed tO the numerical study of the circulation in the northeasternSouth China Sea, Taiwan...

According to the order analysis of each dynamic factor which affects thecirculation of the northeastern South China Sea (SCS), Taiwan Strait and its adjacentwaters,a divisional area of barotropic and baroclinic couple model is set up based onHurlburt & Thompson's numerical model, so that the violently changed topographiceffect of continental shelf and slope on the circulation of marginal sea can be shown.The model is employed tO the numerical study of the circulation in the northeasternSouth China Sea, Taiwan Strait and its adjacent waters. The computational result ofpreliminary experiment shows that the couple model can not only overcome thetwo-layer model's shortcomings liable to intersect surface and intersect bottom, butalso reflect the baroclinic and bottom topographic effects, so as to make thesimulation results fit the reality much more; i.e.: (1)Most of Kuroshio water heads forthe south shore of the Taiwan Island initially in the direction of incident angle fromeast of the Luzon Island, and then flow northward along east shore of the TaiwanIsland; meanwhile it brings about all-year-long existence of a cyclonic eddy adjacentto the Dongsha Islands. (2)The bottom topographic effect of the continental shelf andslope in the southwestern waters of the Taiwan Strait is very important. (3)The flowin the Taiwan Strait is mainly northward, with transport about 2 Sv. (4)There exists acurrent somewhat like the SCS Warm Current in the model.

A baroclinic three dimensional shelf sea model-HAMSOM model is employed to simulate the South China Sea(SCS) circulation in December and August. The result is that: for the upper layer circulation, in December, there exists a cycloniccirculation between Xisha Islands and Zhongsha Islands sea zones, a southward western boundary current along the east shore ofmiddle Vietnam and a local anticyclonic eddy in out-lying sea of Jinlan Bay, in the southern SCS, it is mainly shown that thereis a large cyclonic meander...

A baroclinic three dimensional shelf sea model-HAMSOM model is employed to simulate the South China Sea(SCS) circulation in December and August. The result is that: for the upper layer circulation, in December, there exists a cycloniccirculation between Xisha Islands and Zhongsha Islands sea zones, a southward western boundary current along the east shore ofmiddle Vietnam and a local anticyclonic eddy in out-lying sea of Jinlan Bay, in the southern SCS, it is mainly shown that thereis a large cyclonic meander (cyclonic eddy) in Wanantan and an anticyclonic eddy in the north of Beikangansha. In August, thereis a large-scale cyclonic eddy among Dengsha Islands,Zhongsha Islands and western sea areas of Luzon Island, in the western SCS,it is mainly shown that there is a cyclonic eddy in the south of Xisha Islands against an anticyclonic circulation between Jinlan Bayand Liyuetan, in the meanwhile a cyclonic eddy in the east of Wanantan. Due to the actions of baroclinic effect and bottom tope-graphic effect, the current fields of middle layer to southern SCS in winter and summer are almost opposite to those of the surfacelayer.