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生态基础     
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  ecological basis
     Study on the Regularity Water Consumption of Winter Wheat and Its Ecological Basis under Water-saving Irrigation Conditions
     节水灌溉条件下冬小麦耗水规律及其生态基础研究
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     Natural Ecological Basis of Grassland Civilization in Northeast Asia
     论东北亚内陆草原文明的自然生态基础
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     Research progress of physiological and ecological basis forwater-saving irrigation of winter wheat
     冬小麦节水灌溉的生理生态基础研究进展
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     Based on the experiment with 19 rice varieties and different sowing dates at 13 locations in China, meteorologic ecological basis of rice chalk iness formation and the regionalization of meteorologlc chalkiness in rice growing areas with different rice farming system have been analysed.
     通过19个品种在全国13个点的多播期试验,分析了稻米垩白形成的气象生态基础及我国稻区不同稻作制下水稻气象垩白的分异情况。
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     Five problems in ecological construction such as fragileness of ecological basis, serious deterioration of ecology, overburdening of resources, coexistence of poverty in economy and deterioration in ecology, the speed of ecological improvement fails to keep pace with that of ecological destruction and so on were discussed.
     论述了生态建设面临的自然生态基础脆弱、生态严重恶化、资源承载过度、经济贫困与生态恶化交织、生态治理速度赶不上破坏等 5个问题。
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  ecological base
     Study on the Physiological and Ecological Base of Quality Formation of Rapeseed
     油菜品质形成的生理生态基础研究
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     Recently,the insect radar detection,climate analysis and molecular methods were used on the migration of aphids. The physiological and ecological base,migration behaviour,influence factors and the study methods of aphid migration are reviewed.
     目前 ,昆虫雷达观察、天气学分析和分子生物学方法已应用于蚜虫迁学的研究中 ,文章对蚜虫迁飞的生理生态基础、迁飞行为、影响迁飞的生态因子以及研究方法进行了综述 ,以期为蚜虫这类小型昆虫的迁飞研究提供指导
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     (2) broken through the traditional patterns of land utilization in modern cities to form a city ecological base;
     (2)打破现代城市传统土地利用格局,构建城市生态基础;
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     By analysing the sustainablities of agricultural resources and agroecosystem,it was considered that the sustainablity of agricultural resources is the material base,the ecological sustainablity of agroecosystem is the ecological base,and the sustainable agrotechnique is the important guarantes of the sustainable development of agriculture.
     通过对农业自然资源的可持续性及农业生态系统的可持续性分析,认为资源持续是农业可持续发展的物质基础,生态持续是农业可持续发展的生态基础,可持续性农业技术是农业可持续发展的重要保证.
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     To analyze its geographical variance, climate ecological base, and interaction with trial site, the stability of provenances, the character of seeds, growth and physiology of 20 provenances of Fraxinus mandshurica was tested.
     本文以水曲柳(Fraxinus mandshurica)自然分布区内20个种源的生长、种子、生理等性状为研究对象,利用方差分析、相关分析、回归分析等多种统计分析方法,研究了水曲柳(Fraxinus mandshurica)的地理变异及其趋势; 探讨了地理变异的气候生态基础
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  ecological foundation
     Urban green space , with the special contribution to the constructure, founction and changes of urban landscapes, is the natural element in cityscapes, the ecological foundation of sustainable development of society and economy and one of the important infrastructures in urban construction.
     城市绿地是城市景观的自然要素,是社会经济可持续发展的生态基础,是城市建设中重要的基础设施之一,在城市景观的结构、功能及其变化中起着重要的特殊功能。
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     Fifth, it should increase the devotion to the ecological environment construct, strengthen the ecological foundation construction.
     此外,还应该增加对生态环境建设的投入,加强生态基础工程建设;
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     Physiological and ecological foundation of drought-resistance of soybean have been studied.
     大豆抗旱的生理基础和生态基础 ,前人已做过研究。
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     Meanwhile Nantong must take the road to sustainable development, and establish the basic strategy of ocean economy oriented sustainable development. In addition, great importance should be attached to ecological foundation, technical support and incentive mechanism.
     南通特色海洋经济必须走可持续发展之路,为此,要确立可持续发展的基本战略,打好可持续发展的生态基础,强化可持续发展的技术支撑,完善可持续发展的激励机制。
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     Presently most research focused on the development of function, while neglected the ecological foundation and protection.
     对河岸带的关注目前多集中于其功能的开发,而忽略其生态基础和生态保护。
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  ecological mechanisms
     Effects of Rice Ridge Cultivation on Grain Yield and Quality and Its Physiological and Ecological Mechanisms
     垄畦栽培水稻的产量、品质效应及其生理生态基础
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     With the indica hybrid rice combination Xieyou 930 8 and japonica cultivar Bing 98110 as material, the physiological and ecological mechanisms of ridge-cultivated rice were studied.
     以杂交稻协优 93 0 8和粳稻丙 98110为材料 ,初步研究了垄畦栽培水稻产量、品质效应及其生理生态基础
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      ecological basis
    Ecological basis of integrated pest management on rice in North Vietnam: V.
          
    Two critical premises underlie prevalent interpretations of the ecological basis of variation among female primate social behavior.
          
    The ecological basis of each is found in population, community or ecosystems processes, respectively.
          
    Finally, the ecological basis seriously limits the scope for catching-up.
          
    The present investigations were therefore undertaken to see whether there are population differences and, if so, to establish the populations on a sound ecological basis.
          
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      ecological base
    They may extend the possibilities for applying water as an ecological base for lubricating substances.
          
    Again vice versa, the resulting land cover map may be used to update knowledge in the landscape-ecological base.
          
      ecological foundation
    Our goal is to encourage sound management of the prairie dog ecosystem by improving the ecological foundation of their keystone status.
          
    While preserving the ecological foundation of the original North American metrics, we have modified and adapted the IBI to the mainstem Seine River and its major tributaries in France.
          
    Analyses of N spiraling in unimpacted streams provide an ecological foundation for assessment of spiraling in high-N streams.
          
    The ecological foundation for sustainable development in the tropics and subtropics is addressed.
          
      ecological mechanisms
    Ecological mechanisms and prospects for utilization of toxins from parasitic hymenopterans
          
    Ecological Mechanisms of the Formation of Biological Rhythms in Hibernators of the Family Sciuridae in Northeastern Siberia
          
    Here we suggest that equal emphasis should be given to the importance of physiological and ecological mechanisms that relate to changes in developmental sequence.
          
    Each index will give a specific information about these relationships and will greatly depends on the ecological mechanisms, i.e., the point process that leads to the observed repartition.
          
    Among the factors distinguishing these two closely related species from each other, the biological and ecological mechanisms are very important.
          
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    As a result of experiments on related factor number of seeds sown-in nursery and number of seedlings transplanted in each hill,this papershows that under condition of higher levels of fertilizer and water mana-gement,thinner sowing and planting with fewer seedlings brings an evid-ent increase of output as compared with the thicker sowing and plantingwith more seedlings。The function of thinner sowing and planting withfewer seedlings lies in that it helps enlarge of the ears while plantingwith fewer seedlings...

    As a result of experiments on related factor number of seeds sown-in nursery and number of seedlings transplanted in each hill,this papershows that under condition of higher levels of fertilizer and water mana-gement,thinner sowing and planting with fewer seedlings brings an evid-ent increase of output as compared with the thicker sowing and plantingwith more seedlings。The function of thinner sowing and planting withfewer seedlings lies in that it helps enlarge of the ears while plantingwith fewer seedlings tends to be the leading factor in the formation ofbigger ears。Bearing on certain physiological and ecological characteris-tics of community,the paper tries to expend as follows on the mechanismof high yielding from thinner sowing and planting with fewer seedlings:Seedlings of good quality and vigorous growth of individuals in the fieldare the biological bases for bigger ears and higher yield in thinner sowingand planting with fewer seedlings;reasonable distribution of layers ofleaves and stems and the forming of thicker leaf-blades are the ecolo-gical bases for higer photosynthetic productivity in thinner sowingand planting with fewer seedlings.And higher rate of material produc-tion and higher efficiency of transportation in the later growing stageare the physiological bases for bigger ears and higher yield in thinnersowing and planting with fewer seedlings.It can thus be assumed thatthinner sowing and planting with fewer seedlings is not only a measure ofprolifering seeds and economizing sown number in the field but also aneffictive measure for increasinly higher yielding in combination with ade-quate fertilizer and water management.

    本文是根据秧田播种量和每丛插秧本数联因试验的结果,证明在肥水管理水平较高的条件下,稀播少本插比密播多本插具有明显的增产作用。指出稀播少本插在水稻高产形成中的作用点在于增大穗形,而少本插又是形成大穗的主导因素。从群体的某些生理生态着手,阐明了稀播少本插的高产机理:秧苗素质优良和本田个体生育健壮是稀播少本插大穗高产的生物学基础;合理的茎叶配置和较厚的叶片,是稀播少本插净光合生产率较高的生态基础;生育后期的物质生产速度快,运转效率高,是稀播少本插大穗高产的生理基础。从而认为,稀播少本插不仅是一项繁殖种子和节省本田用种量的措施;而且与相应的肥水管理技术结合起来,更是一项高产的有效措施。

    Maize seedlings,which were used as materials in eco-physiologicalresearch of maize root system,were cultured by hydroponics and soil-culture in our experiment.It shows that there are two significantly dif-ferent ecotypes,called deep-rooted type(DRT)and shallow-rooted type(SRT).The shoot/root ratio of DRT is smaller,its resistance to wa-ter-logging and absorbing capacity of ~(32)P are both higher.The shoot/root ratio of SRT is greater,and its resistance to water logging andabsorbing capacity of ~(32)P are weaker.After...

    Maize seedlings,which were used as materials in eco-physiologicalresearch of maize root system,were cultured by hydroponics and soil-culture in our experiment.It shows that there are two significantly dif-ferent ecotypes,called deep-rooted type(DRT)and shallow-rooted type(SRT).The shoot/root ratio of DRT is smaller,its resistance to wa-ter-logging and absorbing capacity of ~(32)P are both higher.The shoot/root ratio of SRT is greater,and its resistance to water logging andabsorbing capacity of ~(32)P are weaker.After water logging,the secon-dary roots grow rapidly and are greater in amount.Under various conditions,the change of peroxidase isozymes is smal-ler in maize variety with higher water logging resistance,indicatingits wider adaptabitity.The content and kind of free amino acid are different in maizeroot of various ecotypes.

    在利用水培研究玉米苗期根系生态的基础上,着重研究了苗期根系生态显著不同的白玉米232和黄火燥1048二个品种的根系生态生理。结果看出,黄火燥1048根系分布深,在淹水情况下根系受抑制轻,对~(32)P 吸收能力强。两个品种胚根中游离氨基酸的种类和含量也不同;两个品种都表现出地上部氨基酸含量和种类与根系不同。

    It is well known that the flower bud differentiation of strawberry is the prerequisite for its flower bud formation and production.Moreover,the mastery of this process is helpful to the determination of cultural measures and prolongation of full fruit period. The test was carried out at Experimental Garden of our university dur- ing 1980—1981.With seedlings in different stages the observation of straw- berry (Cnltivar:Bao-Uing-Ji-xin) was made on the initiation as well as for- marion of flower buds under either...

    It is well known that the flower bud differentiation of strawberry is the prerequisite for its flower bud formation and production.Moreover,the mastery of this process is helpful to the determination of cultural measures and prolongation of full fruit period. The test was carried out at Experimental Garden of our university dur- ing 1980—1981.With seedlings in different stages the observation of straw- berry (Cnltivar:Bao-Uing-Ji-xin) was made on the initiation as well as for- marion of flower buds under either natural or artifieal conditions.Mean- uhile the main requirements in flower bud differentiation were also studied. Under natural conditions at Bao Ding,Hebei province,the differentiation of flower buds was detected between mid-September and late October.During initial period it was necessary to supply 12-hour sunshine every day and to maintain the appropriate temperatures between 10 to 20℃,with the critical temperatures being from 5 to 27℃.The healthy seedlings transplanted with five leaves showed tendencies not only to produce more flower buds but to shift the initiation to an earlier time.The differentiated seedlings could be used for protective ground culture from winter to early spring,or cultivation in the open from late spring to summer. Under artifical-controlled conditions-treatment with 10-hour sunshine afforded per dayand temperatures remained between 10 and 16c,the seedlings of good quality began to differentiate flower buds 13 days after the treat ment and the flower buds were fully developed and the numbers increased as the schedule proceeded.After establishing those treated-seedlings could bear early or late,accrodingly,by using under-cove culture. Morphologically,the procedurces of flower bud formation in strawberry were considered to divide into three phases—primordia,inflorescence and floral organ,respectively.The growing points in Phase Ⅰ was characterised first as rounded,thidxened,swollen and finally gave rise to flower primor- dia.And all this happened ouly for 5 to 6 days.Phase Ⅱ required about 11 days when,the lateral flower buds in terminal inflorescence continued to i- nitiate and develop until the primodia of second inflorescence started to form.Phase Ⅲ was discribed as the stage when,the sepal,corolla,stamen and pistil were formed progressively until the primordia in third inflorescence occurred.This stage lasted some 16 days.

    草莓的花芽分化,是草莓花芽形成、开花、结果,确定栽培形式,延长结果期及取得产量的重要生理生态基础。本试验于1981—1982年在河北农业大学实验园进行。试验对草莓“保定鸡心”品种不同叶龄苗在自然和人工控制条件下花芽分化的时期、进程和所需主要条件进行了研究。在保定地区自然条件下,草莓的花芽分化期在9月中旬—10月下旬。花芽分化期间需12小时以下短日照,限界温度为5—27℃,适宜温度为10—20℃。经移栽的五叶以上壮苗有成花数多和提早分化之趋势。分化后的成苗可用于冬春保护栽培和春夏露地栽培。五叶以上壮苗,置于人工控制条件下,每日经10小时光照和10—16℃低温处理,经13天即可形成花芽,并随处理时间的适当延长,花芽发育充实和分化数量增多。经处理的苗株定植后,结合保护地栽培,收果期可相应地提前、延后或延长。草莓的花芽分化从解剖形态上,可分为分化初期、花序分化期和花器分化期。分化初期仅需5—6天,生长点变圆、肥厚、隆起,花原始体形成;花序分化期约需11天,是顶生花序侧花芽不断分生、发育至第二花序原始体形成的过程;花器分化期约16天,是顶生花序萼片、花冠、雄雌蕊形成至第三花序原始体形成的过程。

     
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