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In Keynesian Economics, a country's short-term balanced employment and income level depend on effective demand, while effective demand is formed by consumption demand and investment demand. Consumption demand depends on consumption tendency while effective demand on capital marginal efficiency and interest rate. Therefore, total demand of consumption demand and investment demand together with total supply determined by production factors now existing decide a country's short-term balanced employment and income...

In Keynesian Economics, a country's short-term balanced employment and income level depend on effective demand, while effective demand is formed by consumption demand and investment demand. Consumption demand depends on consumption tendency while effective demand on capital marginal efficiency and interest rate. Therefore, total demand of consumption demand and investment demand together with total supply determined by production factors now existing decide a country's short-term balanced employment and income level. The well-known Keynesian Depression Economics System consists of employment shortage, effective demand shortage to investment shortage, consumption shortage and even currency shortage. When effective demand shortage, economic depression and serious unemployment appear in a capitalist state, Keynes suggested that positive fiscal policy, direct increase of government expenditure and public investment be adopted to stimulate economic growth and to solute unemployment problems. Because it is comparatively steady of consumption tendency in a short time, increasing investment demand should be made to bring full employment into being.

在凯恩斯的经济学说中 ,一国短期的均衡就业量和收入水平 ,决定于有效需求 ,而有效需求又是由消费需求和投资需求构成的。消费需求是由消费倾向所决定的 ;投资需求是由资本边际效率与利息率决定的。由消费需求和投资需求构成的总需求和现有生产要素所决定的总供给 ,决定一国短期均衡的就业和收入水平。凯恩斯是由就业不足引到有效需求不足、引到投资不足与消费不足乃至货币不足 ,构成了被人们称之为“萧条经济学体系”。在资本主义出现有效需求不足、经济萧条和严重失业时 ,凯恩斯主张采取积极财政政策 ,直接增加政府的支出和公共投资 ,以刺激经济增长 ,解决失业问题。因为消费倾向在短期内是相对稳定的 ,因而要实现充分就业就必须从增加投资需求着手。

From 1998,Chinese government adopts active fiscal policy. Can active fiscal policy increase aggregate demand? This paper intends to answer this question. This study describes the essence of ricardian equivalence and demonstrates that ricardian equivalence theorem is not correct in theory. This paper examines the effects of active fiscal policy in China using OLS technology. Conclusion is that active fiscal policy is potent in increasing aggregate demand.

1998年以来 ,我国政府实施了积极的财政政策。这种通过增发国债增加政府支出的积极财政政策能否有效地扩大总需求 ,即财政政策是否有效 ,不仅是宏观经济理论的一个核心问题 ,也是我国今后很长时期内制定宏观经济政策时必须考虑的问题。本文主要对李嘉图等价定理进行回顾性理论分析 ,并在理论上论证该定理站不住脚 ,最后通过计量经济分析证明该定理不适用于我国。本文的结论是 :税收和国债在我国并非等价 ,通过增发国债增加政府支出的积极财政政策是有效的。

To finish the shift from the planned economy to the market economy and establish a socialist market economy,China needs a thorough system innovation.If we see from the process of system innovation,the cost of innovation includes the cost of change and practice of the system,and is constituted of all kinds of cost in the three stages such as preparatory ,transition and practice and pertection.Because the cost of system innovation in the transition stage is more predominant than that in the other two stages and...

To finish the shift from the planned economy to the market economy and establish a socialist market economy,China needs a thorough system innovation.If we see from the process of system innovation,the cost of innovation includes the cost of change and practice of the system,and is constituted of all kinds of cost in the three stages such as preparatory ,transition and practice and pertection.Because the cost of system innovation in the transition stage is more predominant than that in the other two stages and which change largely,so the key to making China's cost of system innovation minimize lies in reducing the cost as much as possible.It is very important to strenghen rational input for changing the governments'function and system innovation.In the process of system innovation,the central government should undertake the cost of starting innovation and the cost which related to the whole interest of the country and society,and other cost are assumed respectively by the central government,the locality government,the enterprise and the individual.

中国要实现从计划经济到市场经济的转变 ,建立完善的社会主义市场经济体制 ,需要全面的制度创新。从制度创新的过程来看 ,创新成本包括制度的变革成本和运行成本。创新成本实际上由创新准备阶段成本、制度过渡阶段成本、新制度完善及运行阶段成本构成的 ,其中由于制度过渡阶段成本在我国所占比重通常较大特别是其不确定性和可变性最大 ,因此最大限度降低这部分成本就成为我国制度创新成本最小化的关键。必要的成本投入对于政府转变职能和进行制度创新至为重要。在制度创新过程中 ,创新初期的启动费用及关系到国家和社会整体利益的成本费用应主要由中央政府支出 ,其他成本则由中央、地方、企业、个人分别承担

 
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