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  yuan dynasty
The vicious cycle of official corruption got worse unprecedentedly in the Yuan dynasty (ca.
      
Eventually this model would gain even wider acceptance after the Yuan Dynasty with the rise of Neo-Confucianism.
      
The profound spiritual and cultural implications involved in the dramas of the Yuan Dynasty (Yuan Chao 元朝 CE 1271-1368) are related to the existential formation of Buddhism in a special way.
      
Analysis shows that the main flooding periods in the studied region in the last 2000 years were the Western Jin Dynasty, Eastern Jin Dynasty, Northern and Southern Dynasties, Southern Song Dynasty, Yuan Dynasty, Ming Dynasty and Qing Dynasty.
      
M?ssbauer study of the firing technology of the moon-white Jun porcelain in Chinese Yuan Dynasty
      
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  the yuan dynasty
The vicious cycle of official corruption got worse unprecedentedly in the Yuan dynasty (ca.
      
Eventually this model would gain even wider acceptance after the Yuan Dynasty with the rise of Neo-Confucianism.
      
The profound spiritual and cultural implications involved in the dramas of the Yuan Dynasty (Yuan Chao 元朝 CE 1271-1368) are related to the existential formation of Buddhism in a special way.
      
The M?ssbauer spectra from the glazes of the Song Dynasty and the Yuan Dynasty Ru porcelains and the imitative ancient Ru porcelain are compared and analyzed.
      
It is determined that the original firing atmosphere of the Yuan Dynasty Ru porcelain was reductive.
      
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This paper points out that cold and stern is the chief artistic style of thetuned verse created by literati and officialdom during the Yuan Dynasty in an endeavor tovent their suppressed resentment and criticize the dark side of their society, a style which is quite different in artistic spirit and esthetic characteristic from the gentle and sincere style as preached by the traditional Confucian norm of prosody. Its characteristic features are, in the main, broadminded outwardly and resentful inwardly emotional...

This paper points out that cold and stern is the chief artistic style of thetuned verse created by literati and officialdom during the Yuan Dynasty in an endeavor tovent their suppressed resentment and criticize the dark side of their society, a style which is quite different in artistic spirit and esthetic characteristic from the gentle and sincere style as preached by the traditional Confucian norm of prosody. Its characteristic features are, in the main, broadminded outwardly and resentful inwardly emotional content, stern and sober in ideological character, and penetrating and incisive in critical 'Attitude, with irony as the chiefest means of artistic expression.

本文认为冷峻是元代士大夫抒写压抑怨怒情怀与批判社会黑暗的散曲作品的主要艺术风格,它表现了迥异于传统诗教的温柔敦厚的另一种艺术精神与审美特征。其主要特点是外旷达而内怨怒的情感内容,严厉而冷静的思想性格,以及深刻辛辣的批判态度;而讽刺则是其最主要的艺术手法。

he author agrees with Chen Shangjun and Wang Yonghao’s views that the author ofTwenty-four Types of Poetry was not Sikong Tu and that Twenty-four Types of Portry actual-ly comes form A Finger on Poetry. However,the author of this essay thinks that Chen Shangjunand Wang Yonghao’s view that the author of A Finger on Poetry and Twenty four Types of Po-etry is Huai Yue of the Ming Dynasty is erroneous. First of all,at the beginning of the Ming Dy-nasty,Zhao Huiqian quoted frorn A Finger on Poetry in his Model...

he author agrees with Chen Shangjun and Wang Yonghao’s views that the author ofTwenty-four Types of Poetry was not Sikong Tu and that Twenty-four Types of Portry actual-ly comes form A Finger on Poetry. However,the author of this essay thinks that Chen Shangjunand Wang Yonghao’s view that the author of A Finger on Poetry and Twenty four Types of Po-etry is Huai Yue of the Ming Dynasty is erroneous. First of all,at the beginning of the Ming Dy-nasty,Zhao Huiqian quoted frorn A Finger on Poetry in his Model of Learning,and zhao livedseventy years earlier than Huai Yue. The Tianyige Bibliography records that Huai Yue collectedand compiled A Finger on Poetry and quotes the preface by Huai Yue. This serves as another evi-dence to show that A Finger on Portry was not written by Huai yue. In the present essay,the au-thor examines the different editions of A Finger on Portry and argues that the Newly CompiledPoetic Ways by Virtuous People by Shi Qian, which was originally entitled Poetic Ways of YuShishu,was closer to the original form of A Finger on Poetry. Supported by edition evidence andother materials, the essay states that the author of A finger on Poetry, including Twenty-fourTypes of Poetry,was probably Yu Ji of the Yuan Dynasty.

本文同意陈尚君、汪涌豪所提出的《二十四诗品》非司空图所作及《二十四诗品》出自《诗家一指》的观点,但认为其所提出的明怀悦作《诗家一指》包括《二十四诗品》的观点是错误的。明初赵谦《学范》引用过《一指》,较怀悦的时代早七十余年。《天一阁书目》著录怀悦编集《诗家一指》,并录怀悦叙,可证《诗家一指》非其所作。本文考察了《诗家一指》的不同版本系统,认为史潜刊《新编名贤诗法》本题名为《虞侍书诗法》的本子更接近原貌,从而根据版本及有关材料认为《诗家一指》包括《二十四诗品》的作者有可能是元代的虞集。

A marked difference of values on marriage and government post between the literati of the Song Dynasty and those of the Yuan Dynasty is much in cvidence as reflected in the drama of the two dynasties.The literati of the Song enjoyed a high social position. What interested them was government position,not the moral sense. To pave their way to high posts, they did not hesitate,ungratefully,to break off relations with their beloved to contemplate matrimony with the girls from the families of the powerful and the...

A marked difference of values on marriage and government post between the literati of the Song Dynasty and those of the Yuan Dynasty is much in cvidence as reflected in the drama of the two dynasties.The literati of the Song enjoyed a high social position. What interested them was government position,not the moral sense. To pave their way to high posts, they did not hesitate,ungratefully,to break off relations with their beloved to contemplate matrimony with the girls from the families of the powerful and the wealthy. Their marriages were colored clearly with the aim of selfish gains. It was a vicious result of the imperial examination system of the Song Dynasty. Whereas the literati of the Yuan, being socially low,were keen on wholesome morality, not on high posts.They placed morality before personal official careers, purified in soul, pursuing an ideal marital life.It was an accidental unexpected outcome of the discontinuance of the imperial examination system in the Mongolian dynasty. The difference of values on marriage and government post between two dynasties' literati as reflected in the drama holds a mirror to the difference of cultural backgrounds, political systems and moral tones of the two dynasties,especially to the difference of the literati' s ethics and pursuits in life.

宋代南戏和元代杂剧所表现出的两代文人之仕婚观念,有着明显的差异:宋代文人社会地位高,他们只求做官,不求做人;为了做官,不惜负心婚变,攀婚高门,他们对待仕婚矛盾的态度是仕高于婚,婚姻是为仕宦服务的,其婚姻带有明显的功利思想,这是宋代科举大盛的一个恶果。元代文人社会地位低,他们只求做人,不为做官;为了做人,他们重婚轻仕.追求理想的婚姻生活,并使自己的灵魂得到净化,这是蒙元中断科举给元代社会道德风尚带来的一个意想不到的结果。宋元戏曲中文人仕婚观的差异,是宋元社会不同文化背景、不同政治制度、不同道德风尚的形象反映,尤其反映了两代文人尊卑的道德情操和人生追求。

 
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