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降水强度     
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  precipitation intensity
     Based on the hourly precipitation data of 2 years on the Fujian Huian and Daya bay nuclear power plant sites,the two parameters "precipitation time fraction" and "distribution ratio of precipitation intensity" of the washout factor model are estimated. Through analysis, the following values of "precipitation time fraction" and "distribution ratio of precipitation intensity" are:FW1= 1.0, FW2=0.91,FW3=0.35,FW4=0.28;
     基于福建惠安和大亚湾两个厂址各两年的逐时降水数据进行统计,估算事故冲洗因子计算公式中的两个参数“降水时间份额FW”和“降水强度分配比fl”的数值,通过分析其取值为FW1=1.0,FW2=0.91,FW3=0.35和FW4=0.28;
短句来源
     Based on raindrop category model and compared with observation, the precipitation intensity and raindrop spectrum are analyzed for three typical stratiform clouds: stratiform cloud system formed by strong front, cyclonic scale convergence and weak front system in the northern China.
     通过建立雨滴分档模式,结合部分观测资料,对中国北方常见的三类典型层状云系:强锋面抬升层状云系、气旋尺度辐合层状云系及弱锋面抬升层状云系的云中水成物总比含水量、降水强度及地面雨滴谱进行了数值模拟,并与观测值进行了比较分析。
短句来源
     (2) The maximum precipitation and throughfall from July 27th to 28th, 2002 year were 122.8 mm and 104.9 mm, respectively, and the maximum throughfall lagged about 1 1hour behind maximum precipitation intensity;
     (2)2002年7月27日—28日特大暴雨最大降水量、最大穿透雨量分别为122.8mm和104.9mm,且穿透雨最大值出现的时间滞后于降水强度最大值出现的时间1h;
短句来源
     in shifting dunes while precipitation intensity was within 21.7 mm5d -1 the maximum depth of soil moistened by rainfall was 130~135 cm and the permeation rate can reach 32.5~33.8 cm5d -1 . In fixed and shifting dunes the precipitation with intensity less than 8 mm5d -1 would vapor soon, whereas in semi-fixed dunes it can stay longer.
     在流动沙丘上,21.7mm·d-1以内的降水强度的最大含水层为130~135cm,降水的下渗速率可达32.5~33.8cm·d-1; 在固定沙丘和流动沙丘上,8mm·d-1以内的降水很快蒸发损失,而在半固定沙丘上能保存较长时间;
短句来源
     the correlation between rainfall and its permeation was less significant. In fixed sand dunes when precipitation intensity was within 29.8 mm5d -1 the maximum moistened soil depth by rainfall was 10~15 cm and the permeation rate was 15 cm5d -1 ;
     降水强度在29.8mm·d-1以内时,固定沙丘上的最大含水层为10~15cm,降水的下渗速率只有10~15cm·d-1;
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  rainfall intensity
     The interception rate of litter was decreased while rainfall intensity was increased, and its exponential model was designed as Y=92.268 e-0.0421x (R2=0.973).
     枯枝落叶层对降水的截留率随降水强度的增加而减小,其指数模型为:Y=92.268 e-0.0421x (R=0.973)。
短句来源
     However, the proportion tends to remain constant at about 0^3~0^4 for Artemisia ordosica plant and 0^2~0^3 for Caragana korshinskii plant when the rainfall intensity is more than 1 mm5h~(-1).
     当降水强度>1mm·h-1时,油蒿冠层截留与总降水量的比率基本稳定在0 3~0 4,柠条冠层截留与总降水量的比率基本稳定在0 2~0 3之间,比油蒿群落冠层截留率低10%左右.
短句来源
     When only litter form covers soil and there was no water infiltration and no water running off from ground surface, the maximum rainfall amount and the maximum rainfall intensity in different forest stands are 4.19mm and 1.96mm/h for the forest of Cupressus funebris Endl.
     在只有凋落物覆盖的情况下,不同森林类型因其状况不同,不出现水分下渗和地表径流时的最大降水量及最大降水强度不同,分别为柏木林4.19mm,1.96mm/h;
短句来源
     Though the accuracy of IR WV or IR1 T IR2-IR1 rainfall intensity category matrix is lower in a sort of way than that of IR VIS rainfall intensity category matrix, the total precision is also up to 75% for three grade analyses of no rainfall, light moderate and heavy hard rainfall.
     IR1 WV ,TIR1-IR2 降水强度类属矩阵 ,各项指标虽然均略低于IR1 VIS降水强度类属矩阵 ,但对无雨、中小雨和大到暴雨的 3个级判识 ,总准确率也能够达到 75 %。
短句来源
     (2) Through observed to the two tree species forest lands, the runoff will only take place when the precipitation is more than 5mm or the rainfall intensity is over 4mm/h, of which the precipitation and runoff have a liner correlation (R=0.8).
     (2)观测发现,林地只有在一定的降水量(>5mm)或降水强度(>4mm/h)下才会有坡面径流产生,产流量与降水量呈线性相关,相关系数达到0.8以上。
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  intensity of precipitation
     In addition,the development of vertical motion also improved the cyclonic activity with γ scale,and would strengthen the intensity of precipitation.
     同时,垂直运动的发展,促使中γ尺度气旋的活跃活动使得暴雨过程中的降水强度得到显著加强,也是暴雨强度增强的主要原因。
短句来源
     Therelation between the track and position of the tropical cyclone and the spatial--temporal distribution and intensity of precipitation in Shandong were statistically analysed.
     同时,还对热带气旋移动路径、所在位置与山东降水的时空分布及降水强度之间的关系进行了简单的统计分析,其结果可供热带气旋的业务预报参考。
短句来源
     Anyhow, the velocity and distribution of updraft has a relatively great impact on the intensity of precipitation and distribution of radar echo intensity profile line.
     上升气流速度和空间分布对于地面降水强度及雷达回波强度廓线确具有较大影响,特别是对于需要将上升气流作为初始场的一维层状云模式来说,上升气流的选取存在一定的困难。
短句来源
     In North China, under the background of decrease in annual precipitation totals, decreasing trends are very obvious for 1-day and 3-day maximum precipitation, and for rain days with daily precipitation above 50 mm and 100 mm. However, annual mean intensity of precipitation still tends to increase in North China.
     如华北地区在年降水量明显趋于减少的同时,年降水量极端偏多的范围减少,1日和3日最大降水量、日降水≥50mm和100mm的暴雨日数极端偏多的情况也趋于减少,而平均降水强度极值显著增加。
短句来源
     In eastern China, much above normal mean intensity of precipitation tends to increase.
     在中国东部,平均降水强度极值出现的范围趋于扩大。
短句来源
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  rain intensity
     The comparison of retrievals of GPROF V6.1 and V6.2 with ground-based radar and gauge data on land and PR data on ocean show that the GPROF-V6 algorithm can retrieve rain intensity much well and indicate vertical distribution of hydrometers mainly.
     将陆地的反演结果与地基雷达资料和地面雨量计资料进行比较,海洋的反演结果结合TRMM PR的降水产品进行比较,结果表明:GPROF-V6算法反演的降水产品可以较好地反映降水强度并反映降水的主要垂直结构;
短句来源
     The results show that the rainfall area shrank reasonably and the spurious rainfall centers comparatively reduced so that the rain intensity and distribution were more approaching to the observational one when the CPS was adopted in the D1 and D2 of triple nesting grid domain.
     结果表明:三重嵌套在D1,D2域选用积云参数化方案后,模拟的雨区收缩,虚假降水中心相对减少,降水强度及分布更接近观测值。
短句来源
     however, the convergence in front of the jet will be strengthened with the accelerated stream and the rain intensity will be advanced.
     反过来,边界层气流的加速又加强了急流前方的风速辐合——如果急流方向水平垂直于山坡,这种迎风坡上的辐合将更强,造成局地降水强度进一步增强。
短句来源
     In comparison with the radar reflectivity rate factors of the spherical raindrops of the same volume, the correction coefficient under different rain intensity and the relationship between weather radar measurement data and rain intensity are determined.
     将重新定义的雷达反射率因子与同体积球形雨滴的雷达反射率因子比较,确定不同雨强下的订正系数,并且确定了天气雷达测量数据与降水强度之间的关系。
短句来源
     Based on the statistical analysis of regional torrential rain events,a rapid assessment model of torrential rain event was established by the controlling factors(average precipitation,rain intensity and cover range),and the distance function was employed.
     通过对区域性暴雨事件历史资料的统计分析,利用平均降水量、降水强度和覆盖范围3个指标,建立了基于距离函数的暴雨事件快速评估模型。
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  precipitation intensity
Based on daily rainfall data measured in China during the period of 1951-2004, several quantitative criteria were developed to define PHR events by means of their precipitation intensity, temporal duration, spatial extent and persistence.
      
Results are analyzed of study of the monsoon circulation indices: those determined from wind speed in the lower and upper troposphere and those characterizing the precipitation intensity.
      
Seasonal changes in precipitation intensity in the main monsoon regions are also considered.
      
Precipitation intensity is underestimated during the cool season and overestimated (20-30%) during summer.
      
The nonlinear relationship is of great significance to the confluence curve especially when the precipitation duration is less than the total confluence time or the precipitation intensity is small.
      
更多          
  rainfall intensity
At the same time, better correlative relationship between runoff and sediment production and rainfall and rainfall intensity were testified by multiple regression, but the correlation decreased gradually with the increase of canopy density of forest.
      
Preferential flow would appear when the rainfall intensity was over 0.075 mm/min.
      
The minimum rainfall intensity and the minimum rainfall duration needed to infiltrate to the wetting front depth are calculated based on the Green-Ampt model.
      
Results of measurement of rainfall intensity and accumulated amounts with an automated tipping-bucket rain gauge based on an updated DZhO M96-8 precipitation gauge are presented.
      
On the dependent structure between rainfall intensity and duration
      
更多          
  intensity of precipitation
Only in regions, where all the moisture evaporates from the ground already in spring, the intensity of precipitation events is reduced in summer.
      
In our experiments, the intensity of precipitation also appears to have a small effect on the stratification of the water temperature.
      
Using a state-of-the-art land surface model in a 'stand-alone' mode with prescribed atmospheric forcing, a method for retaining the spatial extent and intensity of precipitation in Atmospheric General Circulation Models (AGCMs) is investigated.
      
With warm rain falling the currents had a negative sign and increased in value with intensity of precipitation.
      
Forest canopies do modify intensity of precipitation, such that their presence may prevent sliding in some instances.
      
更多          
  rain intensity
Results show that the coefficient of variation (Cv) of throughfall tends to decline as rain intensity increases.
      
(2) The principal factor causing soil erosion on the slope of the embankment is individual amount of precipitation, the width of the embankment and rain intensity.
      
(3) The principal factor causing soil erosion on the cutting slope is individual amount of precipitation, the width of the cutting slope and rain intensity.
      
(4) The principal factor causing soil erosion on the slope of the dumped soil area is individual amount of precipitation, the width of the flat roof and rain intensity.
      
Rainfall in time at any ground location can be described by the rain intensity distribution over the subtrajectories which are drawn by the ground location point on the radar-detected incremental rain fields (IRFs) that pass over this location.
      
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  其他


The analysis of summer rainfall intensity in China is carried on for the purpose of practical application of climatic data to the natural resources development. It contains three main parts: 1) a brief survey of the distribution of mean intensity of rain in summer months; 2) an investigation of the record maxima of rainfall intensity at different stations in respective geographical regions; 3) a statistical analysis of the time variations of yearly maximum intensities at 12 representative stations and a calculation...

The analysis of summer rainfall intensity in China is carried on for the purpose of practical application of climatic data to the natural resources development. It contains three main parts: 1) a brief survey of the distribution of mean intensity of rain in summer months; 2) an investigation of the record maxima of rainfall intensity at different stations in respective geographical regions; 3) a statistical analysis of the time variations of yearly maximum intensities at 12 representative stations and a calculation of expected values of daily rainfall intensity for different ranges of time period.

本文關於中國夏季日降水强度的分析,是以对國民經济服务为目的的。全文分三部分:第一部分,讨论了夏季日降水强度的平均分佈,指出初夏的强度,南方大於北方,七月裹就北方大於南方。最大強度成面出現,反映着降水强度和气旋路徑,地理环境的相互联系。第二部分,以自然地理區域为單位,討論各級絕对最大强度的出現频率,众數和平均数等。还指出了各大區域發生絕对最大强度降水的地面天气形势。第三部分,分析了十二个代表性测站最大降水强度的時間变化,应用統計方法,計算出各地點在某一年代之內可能出現的絕对最大日降水强度

Taking consideration of the feedback on the vertical motion due to the drag force and the cooling effect acted on the air by raindrops, a system of differential, equations for the vertical velocity, temperature difference between cloud and environment and the water content is introduced. The solutions are. analysed numerically, for five sets of different, parameters. , From the. analysis the effect of different intensity of precipitation, stratification, initial condition and environment are studied, and it...

Taking consideration of the feedback on the vertical motion due to the drag force and the cooling effect acted on the air by raindrops, a system of differential, equations for the vertical velocity, temperature difference between cloud and environment and the water content is introduced. The solutions are. analysed numerically, for five sets of different, parameters. , From the. analysis the effect of different intensity of precipitation, stratification, initial condition and environment are studied, and it is further found that under the influence of precipitation process, the vertical velocity, temperature difference and water content in cloud are reduced very quickly, and the descending motion appeas rapidly first at the cloud base, then spreads upward. Thus, starting from the cloud base, the cloud dissipates rapidly. This resembles the observed process of the dissipation of a precipitating cloud.

本文考虑了降水过程中水滴对空气的拖带作用和降温作用,并考虑到含水量变化时,由于水滴对空气拖带力的变化,而对垂直运动产生的反馈影响,导出了局地积云的运动方程、热力方程和含水量方程,并由此研究在降水过程中云中空气垂直运动、云内外温差和含水量结构的变化。计算结果指出,局地积云在降水过程的影响下,云中空气的垂直运动、云内外温差和含水量都要明显变小,并且很快地由下向上逐渐出现下沉运动,云也由下向上逐渐消散。计算结果与实际观测现象是基本相似的。本文共做了五个不同条件的个例数值计算,并由此分析比较了不同降水强度、不同稳定度、不同云中初始条件和不同云外环境所起的不同作用。

In this paper, the drag effects of the precipitation particles on the air current in convective cloud are investigated, by applying the theory of motion of sand particles. It is found that: 1) the downward velocity of air thus produced is reasonable; 2) the precipitation has the character of a shower.

本文进一步研究了对流云中,降水貭点对气流的拖带作用。把降水貭点和空气作为混合介貭看待,根据泥砂輸运理論,重新推导了問題的基本方程組.在这一基础上,分析了問題的常定和非常定解。得到两点主要的結果:1)按云中实际可能出現的含水量数量,通过拖带作用后,可以产生与观測結果同量級的下沉气流强度;2)云中降水泡(降水集中区),在降落过程中,水量将向泡的前沿区集中,由于水量的这种聚集,降水到达地面时有可能出現陣性,即降水强度一开始就很大。

 
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