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社区精英
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  community elites
    Studies on the Boxer Movement The Union and Action of Community Elites ——An Explanation of the Oral Historical Data from Liyuantun
    社区精英群的联合和行动——对梨园屯一段口述史料的解说
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  community elites
Gender asymmetries at the community level can easily be reinforced by projects that work with community elites.
      


From the 1860s, the expansion of the power of community elite along the eastern Hebei border was challenged by foreign churches. The trend of the gentry towards self protection in the administration of community affairs and the upholding of ethical standards created a distance between them and the prefectural and county authorities, and provided space within the community for the propagation of civil organizations outside the official systems. This led to the gradual formation of united action against foreign...

From the 1860s, the expansion of the power of community elite along the eastern Hebei border was challenged by foreign churches. The trend of the gentry towards self protection in the administration of community affairs and the upholding of ethical standards created a distance between them and the prefectural and county authorities, and provided space within the community for the propagation of civil organizations outside the official systems. This led to the gradual formation of united action against foreign religions by various organizations both within and outside the official grass root systems. At the turn of the century, internal disturbances and foreign aggression encouraged self protection movements within the community, and led to a lateral union of cross regional community elites and the re creation of regional civil culture. The three symbols of the culture founded in the process united the multi centered, regional civil anti foreign religious groups into the Boxer Movement.

19世纪 60年代以后 ,直东交界一带社区精英权力的拓展遇到外国教会的挑战 ,士绅团首在管理社区事务和维护道德教化领域的自我保护倾向拉大了其同州县政权的距离 ,并为体制外的民间组织公开化提供了社区空间 ,导致基层体制内外的多种组织反击洋教的联合行动日渐武装化。世纪之交的外患内忧使社区自卫运动促进了社区精英跨区域的横向联合和对区域性的民间文化的再创造。这一过程中形成的民间文化的三个标帜将多中心、区域性的民众反洋教集团联结成义和团运动

There have been various opinions about Boxer movement since it occurredThe studies of this movement have gone through three phases since the founding of the People's Republic of China,In the first phase the academic studies was mainly politicatlized;in the second the thchnicality increased gradually;in the third the technicality is increasingly strongEven now it is still an arduous task to show the history as it was

建国以后义和团研究在很长时间里主要围绕着运动的性质及作用、是否反封建、是否构成中国近代史上的第二次革命高潮这类问题而展开讨论。近20年来,随着研究领域的拓展和学术话语的转移,一些更具有学术性的课题,如义和团的组织源流、思想文化、宗教信仰、社会背景等内容,日益受到学者的关注。研究范围扩大到华北游民、民间结社、教民心态、乡村社会、社区精英、基层控制等领域。与此同时,实地调查资料、文献档案史料的整理与发掘,以及社会学、心理学、文化人类学等学科的交叉运用,不仅澄清了诸多重大史实,理清了事件脉络,而且开阔了研究视野,充实了分析方法。上述进展,为深化义和团研究构筑了新的平台。

 
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