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  vegetation ecosystem
Accordingly, the refined estimate for net production in the vegetation ecosystem of Northern Eurasia approaches 1.3 Gt C/year.
      
The value of vegetation ecosystem services: A case of Qinling-Daba Mountains
      
Output from the mechanistic models were from the Vegetation/Ecosystem Modeling and Analysis Project (VEMAP) intercomparison.
      
Vegetation ecosystem simulation and visualisation are challenging topics involving multidisciplinary aspects.
      
A possible exception is the Bristow-Campbell logic as implemented by the Vegetation/Ecosystem Modeling and Analysis Project.
      


Ecotourism gives nature reserves a new opportunity, but confronts them a serious danger. Nature reserves are often surrounded by the contradiction between resource protection and tourism development. Vegetation landscapes are not only important scenic resources, but also levers of harmonizing their ecological balance. So it is important to study the relationship between tourism and vegetation environment in nature reserves. This relationship is analyzed in Luya Mountain Nature Reserve (LMNR) in this paper. By...

Ecotourism gives nature reserves a new opportunity, but confronts them a serious danger. Nature reserves are often surrounded by the contradiction between resource protection and tourism development. Vegetation landscapes are not only important scenic resources, but also levers of harmonizing their ecological balance. So it is important to study the relationship between tourism and vegetation environment in nature reserves. This relationship is analyzed in Luya Mountain Nature Reserve (LMNR) in this paper. By this study, we can seek after the rule of tourism development on vegetation environment, and evaluate its ecological quality, with which we guide tourism industry. LMNR, situated at N 38°36′~39°02′,E 111°46′~112°54′,is the highest peak of Guanqin Mountain range in Shanxi province. It is in warm temperate and mid-humid zone, with obvious continental climate. LMNR protects cold temperate forest vegetation types, and is the origin of Fen River. There are much ecotourism resources in LMNR, and ecotourism has started in 1990s. Nowadays tourists are going on increasing rapidly. Based on elevation and sensitive level of tourist vegetation landscapes, some samples were taken from different zones and horizontal distances along the tourist road of Gangoutan reserve station-Bingkouao-Taizi temple in Luya Mountain in 1999. 2~4 samples were taken randomly on each sampling zone. There were 7 sampling zones and 20 samples in total. In each sample, elevation, slope, aspect, tourist road width, tourists' number at the scenery nearby and the horizontal distance from tourist road were recorded. The coverage, height, abundance, and canopy diameter for each species were investigated. Based on advanced experience, a series of evaluating indices such as sensitive level (SL), community landscape important value (LIV), information index of species diversity (H') and negative species proportion (NSP) have been calculated in this paper. SL is the tourism frequency that tourists' number in certain scenery covers all tourists' number in all tourist regions. It not only reflects the attention of people toward the scenery, but also the degree of tourism development. LIV is the sum of relative species index, relative tree height index and relative canopy diameter index, and it reflects the tourist value and environmental quality of plant community. H' shows the richness and evenness of species, and it calculates by Shannon-Weaner formula. NSP is that negative species covers in the sample. It is fit for bleak and humid environment, and should show the impact of tourism activities on ecological environment. The correlation between landscape characteristics of tourist vegetation and geographical factors in LMNR shows that physical environment has little effect on tourist vegetation landscape. SL adds up from 2020m and 2220m (Bingkouao), and fluctuates at 0.50~0.60 between 2220m and 2520m, and later starts to go up. SL is the most at Bingkouao, and the second around the top of mountain. As a whole, SL increases with elevation. As of LIV, there are three trend lines. Because of artifical forest and community people' activities, LIV decreases gradually from 2020m to 2220m. It increases step by step from 2220m to 2420m, where vegetation possesses the most tourist value and the best environment quality. Because of the more SL and serious physical environment, LIV also drops gradually from 2420m to 2580m. In addition, LIV is the least at Bingkouao, which is the center of tourism business. And it is the second around the top of mountain. H' tends to add up with elevation gradually despite some fluctuation. H' hasn't evident rule from 2020m to 2220m. If we exclude the influence of H' at the near distance at 2520m, H' increases gradually from 2220m to 2580m, and to the most around the top of mountain, which is perhaps the result of moderate disturbance. As a whole, abundance seems not to change with elevation, but richness does obviously. There is very evident correlation between NSP and elevation. As a result, it goes up with elevation though it

采用敏感水平、群落景观重要值、物种多样性信息指数等一系列评价指标 ,探讨了芦芽山自然保护区旅游开发与植被生态环境的关系。通过一系列评价指标分析 ,结果表明 :保护站~冰口凹段 ,敏感水平不断增大 ,景观重要值不断减小 ;冰口凹到 2 4 2 0 m段 ,敏感水平开始逐步减小 ,景观重要值则不断上升 ;2 4 2 0~ 2 5 80 m段 ,敏感水平又开始逐步回升 ,景观重要值则又迅速下降。物种多样性信息指数随着海拔的不断上升 ,呈一条波动且渐趋上升的曲线。但阴生种比值不能很好地反映生态环境质量的优劣。这些指标的变化趋势和其相互关系相吻合 ,且与植被现状大体一致 ,反映了整个自然保护区植物群落的旅游价值及其生态环境质量。同时 ,距游径的水平距离对植物群落及其景观特征的影响也较为明显。研究结果较好地反映了芦芽山旅游开发现状 ,与实际状况大致吻合 ,说明这一方法是可行的

 
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