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自然多倍体
相关语句
  natural polyploidy
     THE CHROMOSOME NUMBERS AND THE TYPES OF NATURAL POLYPLOIDY OF BIDENS PARVIFLORA WILLD.(COMSITAE)
     小花鬼针草的染色体数目及其自然多倍体类型
短句来源
     The research progress in the selection of natural polyploidy tea plants and the technology of tea polyploidy breeding and identification are reviewed in this paper,and the existing problem in tea polyploidy breeding and developing directions are also discussed.
     本文综述了茶树自然多倍体选育,茶树多倍体育种技术和鉴定技术等的研究进展,并对茶树多倍体育种存在的问题和发展方向进行了讨论。
短句来源
  “自然多倍体”译为未确定词的双语例句
     things were the same when it came to natural polyploid except such several recent allopolyploids as Spartina, Tragopogon and Senecio;
     自然多倍体中也仅少数几个最近起源的多倍体如大米草(Spartina)、婆罗门参(Tragopogon)和千里光(Senecio),知道并能获得其起源亲本而对其进化与表达有所研究;
短句来源
     One reason for this situation may be that the allopolyploids in nature are the products of natural selection and evolution and it is difficult for human to repeat and perform the process in short periods.
     其原因一方面可能是自然多倍体是长期自然选择和进化的产物,人类难以在短期内重复和完成这一过程;
短句来源
     16 diploid and polyploid cultivars of loquat were used for studying the relationship between the number of chloroplast in stomata guard cell and the ploidy. The number of chloroplast in guard cell and the density of stomata were observed and compared.
     以16个枇杷品种的二倍体和自然多倍体为试材,研究气孔保卫细胞叶绿体数目和气孔密度与倍性的相关性。
短句来源
  相似匹配句对
     Polyploid insects.
     多倍体昆虫
短句来源
     On Natural Appreciation of the Beautiful
     自然审美
短句来源
     THE CHROMOSOME NUMBERS AND THE TYPES OF NATURAL POLYPLOIDY OF BIDENS PARVIFLORA WILLD.(COMSITAE)
     小花鬼针草的染色体数目及其自然多倍体类型
短句来源
     The Natural Meaning
     自然的心迹
短句来源
     COLCHICINE AND PLANT POLYPLOID BREEDING
     多倍体育种综述
短句来源
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  natural polyploidy
Natural polyploidy is often related to a longer life span, vegetative reproduction and higher competitive ability.
      


Chromosome numbers of 5 Zizyphus species are known. There is no odd ploidy, Zizyphus sativa Gaertn. is diploid, and no spontaneous polyploid type has been found. The triploid plants were first induced from endosperm of Z. sativa in 1978. The endosperm-triploid began to blossom. and bear fruits in 1983. Its cytological behavior is as follows:

枣属植物经过染色体鉴定的5个种,未发现奇数倍性;中国枣为二倍体,未见自然多倍体类型。1978年通过胚乳培养,已首次诱导出三倍体植株。1983年三倍体始花结果,其细胞学特点如下: 1.胚乳二倍体胚乳二倍体的染色体数2n=24。小孢子母细胞减数分裂染色体行为正常。前期Ⅰ和中期Ⅰ,形成12个二阶体。减数分裂结束,形成正常的四分体,小孢子大小整齐。花粉粒属于正常的三孔沟型。2.胚乳三倍体胚乳三倍体的染色体数2n=36。小孢子母细胞较二倍体大。减数分裂染色体行为不正常。前期Ⅰ和中期Ⅰ有数目不等的单价体、二价体和多价体,染色体群数变动于14—20之间。后期Ⅰ、Ⅱ染色体分离不规则,数目不均衡,有落后染色体,多极分裂,并带有微核。减数分裂结束时,部分小孢子母细胞形成一分体、二分体、不等四分体、五分体和六分体等,小孢子大小不一致。正常花粉比二倍体大,有三孔沟和四孔沟两种类型,还有部分小花粉粒和败育花粉。

More than thirty chromosome pairing configurations were observed in the pollen mother cells of O' violaceus, mainly being 12Ⅱ,10Ⅱ+1Ⅳ,8Ⅱ+2Ⅳ,9Ⅱ+1Ⅳ,6Ⅱ+2Ⅵ,8Ⅱ+1Ⅶ,6Ⅱ+1Ⅵ+1Ⅶ,7Ⅱ+1Ⅹ,5Ⅱ +1Ⅳ+1Ⅹ X and 5 Ⅱ+1Ⅳ+1Ⅹ. The multivalents with 4, 6, 8 and 10 chromosomes appeared The percentage of PMCs with 12 Ⅱ was 50. 6 %' The secondary association of chromosomes with a high frequency at metaphase I and the chro-mosome pairing above suggested that O. violaceus be a natural polyploidy species. The for mation of the crossed ring shape...

More than thirty chromosome pairing configurations were observed in the pollen mother cells of O' violaceus, mainly being 12Ⅱ,10Ⅱ+1Ⅳ,8Ⅱ+2Ⅳ,9Ⅱ+1Ⅳ,6Ⅱ+2Ⅵ,8Ⅱ+1Ⅶ,6Ⅱ+1Ⅵ+1Ⅶ,7Ⅱ+1Ⅹ,5Ⅱ +1Ⅳ+1Ⅹ X and 5 Ⅱ+1Ⅳ+1Ⅹ. The multivalents with 4, 6, 8 and 10 chromosomes appeared The percentage of PMCs with 12 Ⅱ was 50. 6 %' The secondary association of chromosomes with a high frequency at metaphase I and the chro-mosome pairing above suggested that O. violaceus be a natural polyploidy species. The for mation of the crossed ring shape tenvalents showed that the translocations occurred among 5 nonhomologous chromosome pairs of O' violaceus' The implications of , the polyploidy nature of the species lor chromosome engineering were discussed.

对诸葛菜减数分裂的研究表明,染色体在终变期表现出30多种配对构型。其中主要的9种为:12Ⅱ,10Ⅱ+1Ⅳ,8Ⅱ+2Ⅳ,9Ⅱ+1Ⅳ,6Ⅱ+2Ⅵ,8Ⅱ+1Ⅶ,6Ⅱ+1Ⅵ+1Ⅶ,7Ⅱ+1Ⅹ,5Ⅱ+1Ⅳ+1Ⅹ。121Ⅱ的构型与其它构型各约1/2。四、六、八、十等多价体为环状或链状。在中期Ⅰ时观察到高频率的次级联会。以上结果表明诸葛菜的染色体间存在高度同源性,故其可能为一自然多倍体种。另外,诸葛菜的10条染色体形成一个完整的染色体环,这表明其12对染色体中有5条非同源染色体发生了相互易位。文中还对诸葛菜染色体组所具有的特殊结构的意义等进行了讨论。

The wide hybridization and polyploidization play a significant role in the evolution of higher plants. On the contrary, the artificially synthesized allopolyploids are genetically unstable and fail to be used as crops. One reason for this situation may be that the allopolyploids in nature are the products of natural selection and evolution and it is difficult for human to repeat and perform the process in short periods. Another reason is that we know little about the mechanisms of interaction between the genomes...

The wide hybridization and polyploidization play a significant role in the evolution of higher plants. On the contrary, the artificially synthesized allopolyploids are genetically unstable and fail to be used as crops. One reason for this situation may be that the allopolyploids in nature are the products of natural selection and evolution and it is difficult for human to repeat and perform the process in short periods. Another reason is that we know little about the mechanisms of interaction between the genomes of different origins. So the genetics and epigenetics after allopolyploidizations are now studied by multidisciplinary approaches. The spatial separation of parental genomes in hybrid cells has been observed in some sexual and somatic hybrids, but the biological meanings remain unknown. The abnormal chromosome behaviors in plant wide crosses, such as pseudogamy, semigamy, chromosome elimination and the mitotic and meiotic separation of parental genomes, may indicate the incompatibility of two parental species at gametic and chromosomal levels. The systematic studies at different levels on chromosomal behavior and genetics in plant hybridizations are needed to undermine the mechanisms responsible for the formation and evolution of new species.

远缘杂交与多倍体化在高等植物的进化中起着重要的作用。但矛盾和令人费解的现象是“自然界在合成多倍体方面取得了巨大的成功,而人类在这方面却收效甚微”。其原因一方面可能是自然多倍体是长期自然选择和进化的产物,人类难以在短期内重复和完成这一过程;另一方面可能对不同的染色体组结合后的遗传与互作机制还不太了解。故多倍体化后的遗传和表观遗传成了目前多学科研究的重点。在有些有性和体细胞杂种内亲本染色体在细胞内分开排列,但此染色体行为的遗传和生物学意义还不太清楚。在植物远缘杂交中出现的假配生殖、半配生殖、染色体消除和亲本染色体组分开等异常染色体行为,也反映出不同物种在配子和染色体水平上的不亲和。需对植物远缘杂交中的染色体行为和遗传进行不同层次与系统的研究,才可能深入了解杂交后新种的形成及进化机制。

 
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