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多倍体小麦
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  polyploid wheat
     Rapid Genome Evolution in Polyploid Wheat
     多倍体小麦中迅速的基因组进化(英文)
     Four sequences hybridized to all polyploid species, but at the diploid level to only species closely related to the B_genome of polyploid wheat. This indicates that these sequences originated with the divergence of the diploid species, and was then vertically transmitted to polyploids.
     结果表明 ,这些序列可被分为两种类型 :其中的 4个序列与所有的多倍体物种均杂交 ,但是在二倍体水平上 ,它们却只与和多倍体小麦B基因组紧密相关的物种杂交 ,这说明这些序列是在二倍体物种分化以后产生的 ,然后垂直传递给多倍体 ;
短句来源
     These changes were implicated to be crucial for both initial establishment (such as cytological diploidization and exclusive diploid-like meiotic behavior) and long-term adaptive evolution (such as genetic diploidization and gene functional diversification) of polyploid wheat as new species.
     这些变异对于多倍体小麦作为一个新物种的最初形成(例如,细胞学上的二倍体化和严格的二倍体样减数分裂行为)以及长期的适应性进化(例如遗传二倍化和基因功能的分化)是非常关键的。
     Recent work revealed that, in the genomes of polyploid wheat, there exists a class of low_copy and chromosome_specific sequences that are labile upon polyploid formation.
     研究表明 ,多倍体小麦基因组中存在一类低拷贝、染色体专化的DNA序列 ,其在多倍体形成时常表现出不稳定性。
短句来源
     High Molecular Weight Glutenin Subunits Variations and Expressions in Synthesized Polyploid Wheat and Its Progentiors
     人工合成多倍体小麦及其供体种的高分子量谷蛋白亚基组成研究
短句来源
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  “多倍体小麦”译为未确定词的双语例句
     All the 61 specific sequences selected were used to analyze the genetic relationships between each of the five species in Sitopsis section and the wheat B genome.
     单元起源学说认为B基因组可能起源于山羊草属Sitopsis组中的某一个种; 多元起源学说认为多倍体小麦B基因组是由多个物种之间相互杂交后所形成的。
短句来源
     The sequences were studied by genomic Southern hybridizations on a collection of polyploid wheats and their diploid progenitors.
     以这些序列为探针对大量的多倍体小麦和它们的二倍体祖先物种进行了Southern杂交分析。
短句来源
     Einkorn wheat is the donor species of polyploidy wheat. It is one of the important basic species of Triticum.
     一粒系小麦是多倍体小麦染色体组的供体物种之一,是小麦的重要基础物种。
短句来源
  相似匹配句对
     Rapid Genome Evolution in Polyploid Wheat
     多倍体小麦中迅速的基因组进化(英文)
     Polyploid insects.
     多倍体昆虫
短句来源
     , wheat ( Triticum aestivum L. )
     、小麦(Triticumaestivum L.)
短句来源
     Study on Polyploid Breeding of Wheat(Triticum aestivum)and Italian Ryegrass(Lolium multiflorum)
     诱导培养普遍小麦多倍体、黑麦草多倍体的研究
短句来源
     Sister Chromatid Exchanges In Wheat
     小麦的姐妹染色单体交换
短句来源
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  polyploid wheat
Using the primers specific to the flanking regions of the marker sequence, PCR analysis of the polyploid wheat species and the diploid species of the section Sitopsis was carried out.
      
The level of translocation polymorphism was comparable with that detected earlier for polyploid wheat species.
      
Diploid-like chromosome pairing in polyploid wheat is controlled by several Ph (pairing homoeologous) genes with major and minor effects.
      
Targeted homoeologous recombination mediated by the absence of the Ph1 locus is currently the most efficient technique by which foreign genes can be introgressed into polyploid wheat species.
      
Chromosome substitutions of Triticum timopheevii in common wheat and some observations on the evolution of polyploid wheat speci
      
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The studies of DNA content and highlg repeated DNA sequences of genome chromosomes furnish reliable evidences for consideration of evolutionary relationship of related species. Seven chromosomes of the hexaploid wheat genome B have relatively large amount of DNA, while the genome D have relatively least amount of DNA among three genormes. Total DNA values of seven chromosomes of the genomes A, B and D are in proportion 1.14, 1.20 and 1.00 respectively, these seem to be roughly correspondent with relative DNA...

The studies of DNA content and highlg repeated DNA sequences of genome chromosomes furnish reliable evidences for consideration of evolutionary relationship of related species. Seven chromosomes of the hexaploid wheat genome B have relatively large amount of DNA, while the genome D have relatively least amount of DNA among three genormes. Total DNA values of seven chromosomes of the genomes A, B and D are in proportion 1.14, 1.20 and 1.00 respectively, these seem to be roughly correspondent with relative DNA values of three assumed ancester of hexaploid wheat. Camparision of DNA content of Triticum and Aegilops species suggested that A. longissima or A. bicornis may have contributed B genome of the wheat, while T. monococcum and A. squarrosa may have A and D genomes respectively. Studies of DNA content also lead us to speculate that there seems to be such on upper limit of DNA content of nucleus or genomes that the plant Can stably hold and beyond the limit it would be unstable and eventually selected out. The studies of highly repeated DNA sequences in Chinese spring Wheat indicated that major chromosomel sites of the satellite are located on chromosomes 4A, 7A and all seven B genome chromosomes. No major sites were present on other A or D genome chromosomes, however longer exposures (xlo) showed the presence of minor sites on both A and D genome chromosomes. The chromosomes of A. squarrosa will accepted as the donor of D genome to hexaploid wheat, contain no major sites for satellite. Studied on the satellate DNA of diploid species have not yet identified the precise B genome donor for hexaploid whcat, although chromosomes resembling 2B, 3B and 5B are evident in A. longissima. Relating to the A genvme chromosomes studies suggested that different ancestral A genomes may have participated in formation of the emmer and timopheevi tetraploids The A genome distribution patterns also suggest that the emmer tetraploids may have introgressed into the cultivated T. timophaevi ssp. timopheevi tetraploids.

细胞核或染色体组DNA含量与高度重复DNA序列的研究,为物种演化关系的探讨提供了可靠的依据。本文综述近年来多倍体小麦及其亲缘物种染色体组的DNA含量与高度重复DNA序列测定和分析的一些报导,并对多倍体小麦A、B与D染色体组的来源与演化进行了讨论。

After the total review of the origin and evolution of wheat genomes, a new path of wheat evolution was suggested That is, 1, T monococcum var urartu was the initial donor of the A genome of polyploid wheat, and after the A genome entered polyploid wheat, there was the introgression of T mono var boeoticum 2, T speltoides was the initial donor of the B and G genome of polyploid wheat; After the S genome of T speltoides entered polyploid wheat, he had two different directions of evolution, that...

After the total review of the origin and evolution of wheat genomes, a new path of wheat evolution was suggested That is, 1, T monococcum var urartu was the initial donor of the A genome of polyploid wheat, and after the A genome entered polyploid wheat, there was the introgression of T mono var boeoticum 2, T speltoides was the initial donor of the B and G genome of polyploid wheat; After the S genome of T speltoides entered polyploid wheat, he had two different directions of evolution, that is, the S genome changing into G genome through the differentiation of chromosomal organization and the S genome evoluting into B genome through foreign chromosomal substitution and recombination etc 3, T turgidum and T timopheevii may all have been originated from initial tetraploid wheat (SSAA) through natural hybridization between T speltoides as female parent and T mono var urartu as male parent and amphidiploidization as well 4, T zhukovskyi was produced through natural hybridization between T timopheevii as female parent and T mono var boeoticum and amphidiploidization as well, so he had two groups of A genomes from T mono var urartu and T mono var boeoticum respectively 5, The D genome of T aestivum was from T tauschii 6, A, B, D, or G genomes were differentiated much in polyploid wheats and their donor species

对小麦染色体组的起源及其进化进行了全面综述后,提出了一个新的小麦进化途径,并认为:(1)Triticummonococumvarurartu是多倍体小麦A组的原初供体,在A组进入多倍体小麦后有Tmonovarboeoticum的基因渗入;(2)B和G组的原初供体是Tspeltoides的S组,在该S组进入多倍体小麦后有两个进化方向,即S组结构分化形成G组和S组经外源染色体代换及重组等而进化成B组;(3)Tturgidum和Ttimophevi都是来自Tspeltoides为母本与Tmonovarurartu杂交后并双二倍化而形成的原初四倍体小麦(SSAA),并由它分别经遗传渗入和结构分化而成;(4)Tzhukovskyi是Ttimophevi作母本与Tmonovarboeoticum杂交并双二倍化而形成,故它具有分别来自Tmonovarurartu和Tmonovarboeoticum的两类A组;(5)Taestivum的D组来自Ttauschi;(6)无论A组、B组、D组、G组在进入多倍体小麦后均有相当分化,同时在其...

对小麦染色体组的起源及其进化进行了全面综述后,提出了一个新的小麦进化途径,并认为:(1)Triticummonococumvarurartu是多倍体小麦A组的原初供体,在A组进入多倍体小麦后有Tmonovarboeoticum的基因渗入;(2)B和G组的原初供体是Tspeltoides的S组,在该S组进入多倍体小麦后有两个进化方向,即S组结构分化形成G组和S组经外源染色体代换及重组等而进化成B组;(3)Tturgidum和Ttimophevi都是来自Tspeltoides为母本与Tmonovarurartu杂交后并双二倍化而形成的原初四倍体小麦(SSAA),并由它分别经遗传渗入和结构分化而成;(4)Tzhukovskyi是Ttimophevi作母本与Tmonovarboeoticum杂交并双二倍化而形成,故它具有分别来自Tmonovarurartu和Tmonovarboeoticum的两类A组;(5)Taestivum的D组来自Ttauschi;(6)无论A组、B组、D组、G组在进入多倍体小麦后均有相当分化,同时在其供体种中也有一定分化。

The tetraploid wheat (Triticum turgiduin L. )landrace Aiganfanmai is a dwarf germplasm which is very rare in emmer wheat. C-band analysis on chromosomes of its root cells was carried out by using the modified C-band technique. 14 pairs of chromosomes in each somatic cell were observed with genome formulae AABB. The numbers,size, intensit and distributions of bands were differential between nohomoeology chromosomes. According to their differehtal C-band patterns, individual chromosomes of Aiganfanmai could be...

The tetraploid wheat (Triticum turgiduin L. )landrace Aiganfanmai is a dwarf germplasm which is very rare in emmer wheat. C-band analysis on chromosomes of its root cells was carried out by using the modified C-band technique. 14 pairs of chromosomes in each somatic cell were observed with genome formulae AABB. The numbers,size, intensit and distributions of bands were differential between nohomoeology chromosomes. According to their differehtal C-band patterns, individual chromosomes of Aiganfanmai could be identified easily. So, the C-bands could be used as cytologic markers of Aiganfanmai' chromosomes' In addition, the band pattern of Aiganfanmai was similar to that of the primitive wild emmer wheat varieties, indicating that no manifest chromosomal rearrangement occured in Aiganfanmai's genome. Therefore, the dwarfing trait of Aiganfanmai is caused by gene mutation rather than by chromosomal aberration. Moreover, chromosomes 3A, 6A and 7A were a little differential between Aiganfanmai and T. monococcum. But Aiganfanmai showed similar C-band pattern to its hexaploid ralatives both in genome A and in genome B. This result supported the conclusion that genomes A and B of polyploid wheat had same progenitor.

矮杆番麦是四倍体小麦地方品种中罕见的矮杆种质。采用改良的C带技术对其根关细胞染色体进行了分析。矮杆番麦作细胞具14对染色体,染色体组型AABB。非同源染色体之间,带的数目、大小、强弱及分布情况各异,根据其特殊的带型,容易将接杆番麦的单条染色作区分开。据此认为C带可作为矮杆备麦染色体的细胞学标记。矮杆番麦的带型与原始类型的野生二粒小麦相似,表明其基因组未发生过大的染色体重排。因此,矮杆番麦的接杆性状不是由染色体畸变引起的,而是基因突变的结果。此外,矮杆番麦的3A、6A和7A染色体与野生一粒小麦相应染色体有差别,而其A组与B组染色体带型与其六倍体近缘种的基本一致。这一结果支持前人关于多倍体小麦的A、B染色体组有共同祖先的推论。

 
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