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硫酸盐气溶胶     
相关语句
  sulfate aerosol
     Sulfate aerosol( SO_4~(2-) ) is one of the substances that are important for the energy balance of the earth atmosphere.
     硫酸盐气溶胶( SO_4~(2-))是影响地球大气系统能量收支的一种重要物质。
短句来源
     Investigations show that the maximum of monthly average of surface concentrations of tropospheric ozone and sulfate aerosol in summer are 125×10~(-9) and 8 μg/m~3, respectively. The average direct radiative forcing due to sulfate aerosol is -0.92 W/m~2, which is strong in three regions of Southwest, South and East/Central China.
     研究表明我国夏季对流层臭氧和硫酸盐的月均最大地面浓度分别为 1 2 5× 1 0 - 9和 8μg/m3.对流层臭氧的平均辐射强迫为 0 .3 9W /m2 ,硫酸盐气溶胶的平均直接辐射强迫为 - 0 .92W /m2 ,两者皆在西南、华南和华中地区出现极值中心 .
短句来源
     The contribution of aqueous oxidation ofSO2 to sulfate aerosol was greater than that of condensation and nucleation of gas H2SO4. H2O2 andO2 are the two major oxidizers.
     SO_2的液相氧化过程对硫酸盐气溶胶的贡献比H_2SO_4气体的凝结、核化过程大; 液相氧化过程中主要是H_2O_2和O_2对SO_2的氧化。
短句来源
     The direct effect of sulfate aerosol was explicitly represented in IAP/LASG GOAL S 4 0 coupled model.
     利用IAP/LASGGOALS 4 0海气耦合模式 ,“显式”考虑了硫酸盐气溶胶的直接作用 ,并且引入德国马普气象研究所的三维浓度分布资料 ,模拟计算了硫酸盐气溶胶的辐射强迫。
短句来源
     The regional climate model (RegCM2) and tropospheric atmosphere chemistry model (TACM) were coupled, thus a regional climate_chemistry model system (RegCCMS) was constructed, which was applied to investigate spatial and temporal distribution of tropospheric ozone and sulfate aerosol, radiative forcing as well as their climatic effects on China.
     将区域气候模式RegCM 2和对流层大气化学模式TACM相耦合 ,建立了一个区域气候 -化学模式系统 (RegCCMS) ,主要用于对流层臭氧和硫酸盐气溶胶的时空分布、辐射强迫和气候效应研究 .
短句来源
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  sulphate aerosol
     Characteristics of Sulphate Aerosol Distribution in China
     中国地区硫酸盐气溶胶的分布特征
短句来源
     Investigation is performed of the space/time features of MODIS data retrieved aerosol optical thickness in the east and middle of China in 2001 and MM5 simulation is conducted of the forcing of sulphate aerosol on direct radiation and its climate effect.
     分析了MODIS卫星资料反演的2001年我国中东部地区气溶胶光学厚度的时空分布特征,并利用中尺度数值模式MM5对该地区硫酸盐气溶胶的直接辐射强迫及其气候效应进行了模拟。
短句来源
     Therefore, the model not only considers the nonlinearity of atmospheric chemistry but also has higher efficiency in calculating annual or seasonal averaged concentration of sulphate aerosol.
     这样使模式既考虑了大气化学过程的非线性 ,又具有较高的计算效率 ,能够方便地计算年 (季 )尺度的硫酸盐气溶胶SO2 -4的浓度分布。
短句来源
     Using the mesoscale model (MM4) and the eulerian model, the characteristics of sulphate aerosol distribution in China was investigated. The results can be easily applied to the climatic model in which the climatic effect of sulphate aerosol is included.
     利用中尺度气象模式MM 4和欧拉输送模式模拟了中国地区硫酸盐气溶胶的时空分布 ,其结果可以方便地应用到考虑硫酸盐气溶胶气候效应的气候模式中去
短句来源
     Based on SO(2) emission data of China in 2000, the meso-scale meteorological model and Eulerian transport model were applied to simulate the distribution of sulphate aerosol. The direct and indirect radiative forcing of sulphate aerosol were further estimated.
     根据2000年污染源排放资料,利用中尺度气象模式和欧拉输送模式模拟了中国地区硫酸盐气溶胶的分布,估计了硫酸盐气溶胶对地面—对流层大气系统造成的直接辐射强迫,并估算了间接辐射强迫。
短句来源
  4 aerosol
     The volcanic eruption made an impact on the existing environment of living things in two ways. On the one hand, it formed certain amounts of sulfide gases such as H 2O, SO 2 and SO 3 which constituted the main composition of volcanic smog and H 2SO 4 aerosol. When the sulfide gases went up into the atmospheric layer, the oxidation reaction occurred and formed H 2SO 4 aerosol.
     火山爆发作用对生物生存环境产生两方面的影响 ,一方面火山喷发作用形成一定量的H2 O、SO2 、SO3 等硫化物气体 ,是火山喷发烟雾及火山硫酸盐气溶胶的主要物质成分 ,由于硫化物气体上升进入大气层而发生氧化反应 ,形成硫酸盐气溶胶 ,对太阳产生折射 ,使生物死亡。
短句来源
  sulfate aerosols
     Numerical Study on Distribution Characteristics of Sulfate Aerosols over East Asia in the Springtime
     东亚春季硫酸盐气溶胶分布特征的模拟
     The experiment provides evidences for the photooxidation of COS in the atmosphere and the formation of sulfate aerosols.
     这为在光的作用下,大气中COS通过光化学反应形成SO2,形成硫酸盐气溶胶提供了实验依据.
短句来源
     On the base of it, Using the Fifth-Generation of PSU/NCAR Mesoscale Model (MM5 ) , we firstly simulated the spatial and temporal characteristics of sulfate aerosols direct radiative forcing and climate effects during clear sky over middle eastern China, then developed the sensible experiments for the sulfate aerosols direct radiative forcing and climate effects when doubling the aerosol optical depth and selected six small areas to compare the difference of the surface temperature.
     在此基础上运用MM5模式先模拟了中东部地区硫酸盐气溶胶晴空直接辐射强迫的大小和气候响应的时空变化特征,然后开展了光学厚度加倍后硫酸盐气溶胶直接辐射强迫及其气候效应的敏感性实验研究,并选取6个不同的小区域,比较它们晴空地面气温响应的差异。
短句来源
     The effects of short-term climate prediction are compared and analysed over China in summer 2003 using the coupled model with and without considering extra-forcing factors(such as greenhouse gases,solar activity,and sulfate aerosols,etc). It is the fourth version coupled model,Global Ocean-Atmosphere-Land System model(GOALS 4.0),developed by State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics,Institute of Atmospheric Physics,Chinese Academy of Sciences.
     利用中国科学院大气物理研究所大气科学和地球流体力学数值模拟实验室研发的全球海洋-大气-陆面过程气候系统耦合模式(IAP/LASG GOALS 4.0),对比分析了考虑和不考虑气候的外强迫因子(太阳活动、温室气体及硫酸盐气溶胶)变化对2003年夏季中国区域的短期气候预测的影响.
短句来源
     Simulation of Radiative Forcing by Sulfate Aerosols
     硫酸盐气溶胶辐射强迫的数值模拟研究
短句来源
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      sulfate aerosol
    Dynamics of Sulfate Aerosol Formation in Engine Jets
          
    The sulfate aerosol reduces global warming by 0.1-0.4 K in different periods depending on the scenario.
          
    Seasonal and spatial variation of radiative effects of anthropogenic sulfate aerosol
          
    Sulfate aerosol particles have strong scattering effect on the solar radiation transfer which results in increasing the planet albedo and, hence, tend to cool the earth-atmosphere system.
          
    This result is discussed in the context of reactions on sulfate aerosol surfaces and, further, more complex calculations.
          
    更多          
      sulphate aerosol
    Assumptions are made about the stratospheric sulphate aerosol loading, size distribution, lifetime, chemical make up and spatial distribution.
          
    The model has been driven with most relevant forcings, both natural (solar variability, volcanic aerosol) and anthropogenic (greenhouse gases, sulphate aerosol, land-use changes).
          
    West African monsoon response to greenhouse gas and sulphate aerosol forcing under two emission scenarios
          
    Another simulation driven with natural and anthropogenic forcings (changes in greenhouse gases, ozone, the direct and first indirect effect of anthropogenic sulphate aerosol and land-cover) from 1750 to 2000 has also been carried out.
          
    With OWFEM a significant relationship is found between sulphate aerosol (SO4), ammonia (NH3) and the number of work loss days (WLDs).
          
    更多          
      4 aerosol
    The effect of SO2, SO3, HSO3, and H2SO4 formation in the jet duct on the dynamics of sulfate H2O/H2SO4 aerosol formation in the wake of a subsonic aircraft is analyzed numerically.
          
    The photochemical conversion of small amounts of SO2 into SO3 and, finally, H2SO4 aerosol in an atmospheric air flow with small admixtures of ozone has been studied experimentally.
          
    As a result, the composition of these aerosols is changed, and a fraction of aqueous H2O/H2SO4/(NH4)2SO4 aerosol particles of a different composition is formed.
          
    The calculations show that volatile yields, released from the melt, are 109.88 × 106 ton of HCl, 196.80 × 106 ton of HF, 1477.84 × 106 ton of H2O, 23.14 × 106 ton of SO2, which could have formed 35.43 x106 ton of H2SO4 aerosol in the atmosphere.
          
    All groups were then subjected to the inhalation of BeSO4 aerosol at selected atmospheric concentrations, and the histopathologic and hematologic response was determined at periodic necropsies.
          
    更多          
      sulfate aerosols
    The formation of liquid sulfate aerosols in the isobaric axisymmetric plume of a subsonic aircraft is modeled numerically.
          
    Why is the climate forcing of sulfate aerosols so uncertain
          
    The ARPEGE-Climat version 3 AGCM with FMR radiation scheme is used to estimate the direct and indirect radiative forcing of sulfate aerosols.
          
    The direct forcing of sulfate aerosols in off-line case is -0.57 W/ m2 and -0.38 W/ m2 for the clear sky and all sky respectively.
          
    The indirect forcing of sulfate aerosols in off-line case is -1.4 W/ m2 and -1.0 W/ m2 in on-line case.
          
    更多          


    There are three ways for sulfur compounds in the atmosphere to enter into the precipitation: ( 1 ) the formation of cloud-fog water with itself as condensation nucleus; ( 2 ) the brushing of sulfur dioxide under the cloud by the precipitation and ( 3 ) the brushing of sulfuric acid fog and sulfate aerosd under the cloud by the precipitation.The contents of these three sulfur compounds under the cloud are high and stable in chemical state, and their contribution to the acidity of precipitation in Liuzbow area...

    There are three ways for sulfur compounds in the atmosphere to enter into the precipitation: ( 1 ) the formation of cloud-fog water with itself as condensation nucleus; ( 2 ) the brushing of sulfur dioxide under the cloud by the precipitation and ( 3 ) the brushing of sulfuric acid fog and sulfate aerosd under the cloud by the precipitation.The contents of these three sulfur compounds under the cloud are high and stable in chemical state, and their contribution to the acidity of precipitation in Liuzbow area are: sulfuric acid 52.4%, sulfate 3.6% and sulfur dioxide 18,7%; and contribution to the total sulfur content are 40.2%, 15.1% and 14.9% respectively .The contribution of cloud-fog water to the total sulfur content in Liuzhow area is about 30%.

    大气中含硫化合物进入降水有三种途径:①自身起凝结核作用形成云雾水;②降水对云下二氧化硫的冲刷;③降水对云下硫酸雾、硫酸盐气溶胶的冲刷。云下硫酸雾、硫酸盐、二氧化硫是大气中硫的三种含量高而且稳定存在的化学状态,在柳州地区它们对降水酸度贡献的估算值分别为52.4%、3,6%、18.7%,对降水中总硫的贡献分别为10.2%、15.1%、14.9%。柳州地区云雾水对降水总硫的贡献约30%左右。

    Based on outdoor smog chamber experiments, the transformation mechanism for SO2 and sulfate and the factors which have influence on SO2 transformation are described . A numerical model has been established which incorporates the puff model and the equations for SO2 transformation and sulfate aerosol formed , and it is used to estimate regional distribution of sulfur dioxide and sulfate concentrations. The simulation results have shown consistent with the measurements from field monitoring. Because sulfate aerosol...

    Based on outdoor smog chamber experiments, the transformation mechanism for SO2 and sulfate and the factors which have influence on SO2 transformation are described . A numerical model has been established which incorporates the puff model and the equations for SO2 transformation and sulfate aerosol formed , and it is used to estimate regional distribution of sulfur dioxide and sulfate concentrations. The simulation results have shown consistent with the measurements from field monitoring. Because sulfate aerosol (particles diameters with smaller than 1um) could be deposited in the pulmonary alveoli by man's breath and persent a greater health hazard than SO2, it is urgent to study smaller particles pollution .

    本文基于对室外烟雾箱实验,探讨了SO_2的转化机制及影响SO_2转化的因素,由此并借助于烟团模型,建立了SO_2转化和硫酸盐气溶胶细粒子生成的数值模型,用于估算从排放源排入大气的SO_2浓度及其转化成硫酸盐细粒子的浓度以及它们的空间分布,与实测结果相比,两者有较好的一致性.同时指出,由于大气中细粒子(粒径小于1μm)可通过人体呼吸进入并沉积在肺泡中而对健康有不利影响,从而说明研究大气中细粒子污染的迫切性.

    The evaporation of raindrops falling below the cloudbase is an important physical process, especially under the condition of low relative humidity below cloudbase. A physico-chemical model of subeloud acidification of rainwater including the evaporation of raindrops is used to study the effect of evaporation on acidification of raindrops and rainwater and to estimate the production rate of sulfate aerosol resulting from the total evaporation of small raindrops. The results show that at the beginning of the predpitation,...

    The evaporation of raindrops falling below the cloudbase is an important physical process, especially under the condition of low relative humidity below cloudbase. A physico-chemical model of subeloud acidification of rainwater including the evaporation of raindrops is used to study the effect of evaporation on acidification of raindrops and rainwater and to estimate the production rate of sulfate aerosol resulting from the total evaporation of small raindrops. The results show that at the beginning of the predpitation, when the relative humidity below cloudbase is low, the conversion rate of sulfate acrosol by evaporation can reach 10 % h-1, which is comparable to gas-marticle conversion.

    云下雨滴蒸发是雨滴下降过程中重要的物理过程,特别是当云下相对湿度较低时更为明显.本文建立了考虑雨滴蒸发的云下雨水酸化的物理化学模式,用以研究云下雨滴蒸发作用对各种大小雨滴及雨水酸化的影响,并估算了由于小雨滴的完全蒸发进入到大气中的硫酸盐气溶胶的生成速串.计算结果表明:这种小雨滴的完全蒸发使雨滴内化学反应生成的硫酸盐结晶进入大气,在降水初期云下相对湿度较小时,形成硫酸盐气溶胶的速率可达100%h,与气位转化速率相当.

     
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