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包络地形
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  envelope orography
     EFFECTS OF ENVELOPE OROGRAPHY AND GRAVITY WAVE DRAG ON PERFORMANCE OF CLIMATE MODELING
     包络地形和重力波拖曳对气候模拟效果的影响
短句来源
     The results also show that both gravity wave drag and envelope orography have smaller influence on model results in the beginning of simulation, but greater in the later stage.
     包络地形对模拟结果也有一定的改善,但对于细网格的区域气候模式(RCM)来说,其效果不如重力波拖曳明显。 不论是地形重力波拖曳还是包络地形,在模式积分的初期,它们的作用并不明显,随着积分时间的增长,它们对模拟结果的影响程度增大。
短句来源
     Effects of Envelope Orography and Gravity Wave Drag Parameterization on Regional Climate Simulations
     包络地形和重力波拖曳对区域气候模拟效果的影响
短句来源
     The regional climate model (RegCM2) of NCAR is used to study the effects of envelope orography and gravity wave drag on the regional climate in China during May and June of 1991. Analysis and comparison of the model results show that the introducing of gravity wave drag to the model can improve the model performance to some extent and result in more realistic simulation, and the effect of envelope orography on regional climate simulation is less significant than that of gravity wave drag.
     用NCAR区域气候模式(RegCM2)的数值试验,研究了包络地形和地形重力波拖曳作用对1991年5、6月份中国区域内气候模拟效果的影响。 通过试验结果的对比分析发现,在模式中引入地形重力波拖曳作用可在一定程度上改善模式对气候系统和要素的模拟效果,使模拟结果更符合气候实况。
短句来源
     The Nju PσM is used to study the effects of envelope orography and gravity wave drag on July climate modeling. The results of analysis and comparison show that envelope orography and gravity wave drag could improve the modeling performance to some extent and result in more realistic simulations.
     该文用Nju-PσM 的数值试验,研究了包络地形和地形重力波拖曳作用对7 月气候模拟效果的影响.通过试验结果的对比分析,发现包络地形和重力波拖曳作用都可在一定程度上改善模式的模拟性能,使模拟结果更符合气候实况.
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  “包络地形”译为未确定词的双语例句
     In order to Study the important influence of the meso-scale topography on Chinese weather,the horizontal and vertical resolutions of REM are increased, and the higher resolution model isused to simulate the heavy raim case of July 12th-13th, 1994, using the routine data to get initial field and model topography by the envelope method.
     针对中尺度地形对我国天气影响的重要性,对REM先后进行水平、垂直分辨率的提高,并运用常规报文资料获得初始场,运用包络地形方法获得模式所需的地形资料,对1994年7月12─13目的大暴雨个例进行了数值试验,结果表明,仅提高REM的水平分辨率,对降水预报有一定的改进和提高,但多报出了几个大暴雨中心。
短句来源
     Two kinds of consensus terrains based on the average consensus and reliable consensus forecast technique are calculated and compared w ith the uncorrected model in different cases.
     试验表明,该方法能够反演出一个既与初始气象要素场相匹配,又与模式更协调的地形场,得到比一般包络地形更好的效果,改善模式对降水的预报。
短句来源
     Results show that the introduction of this scheme improves predictions of zonal temperature and wind fields in tropical troposphere, and simulates better the total eddy angular momentum flux.
     结果表明,在冬季,包络地形方案对低纬地区的温度场和风场的预报略有改进,对总涡旋动量通量的模拟也较好。
短句来源
     In order to research the important influence of the meso-scale topography for Chinese weather, an improvement has been made on the horizontal and vertical resolution of REM in order, and has simulated with the higher resolution model to the heavy rain cases of August 4th-5th,1993 and July 12th-13th,1994,using the routine data to get initial field and model orography by envelope method.
     针对中尺度地形对我国天气影响的重要性, 本文先后提高了 R E M 的水平和垂直分辨率, 并采用包络地形方法处理模式中尺度地形。 运用常规报文资料得到初始场, 对1993 年8 月4 ~5 日, 1994 年7 月12 ~13 日的两次大暴雨个例分别进行了数值试验。
短句来源
     In order to research the important influence of the meso scale topography on Chinese weather,an improvement has be en made on the horizontal and vertical resolution of REM,and the heavy rain case of August 4 to 5,1993 (called “93.8”) has simulated wi th the higher resolution model.
     针对中尺度地形对我国天气影响的重要性,对REM先后进行水平、垂直分辨率的提高,并运用常规报文资料获得初始场,采用包络地形等方法获得模式所需的地形资料,对1993年8月4~5日的大暴雨个例进行了数值试验。
短句来源
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  相似匹配句对
     Landform Architecure
     地形建筑
短句来源
     The Envelop of Creases
     折痕的包络
短句来源
     Landform Architecture
     地形建筑
短句来源
     EFFECTS OF ENVELOPE OROGRAPHY AND GRAVITY WAVE DRAG ON PERFORMANCE OF CLIMATE MODELING
     包络地形和重力波拖曳对气候模拟效果的影响
短句来源
     Effects of Envelope Orography and Gravity Wave Drag Parameterization on Regional Climate Simulations
     包络地形和重力波拖曳对区域气候模拟效果的影响
短句来源
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  envelope orography
Two experiments are performed, a "step-mountain" (ETA) and an "envelope orography" (SGM) experiment.
      
In the NR, envelope orography is used, which is higher than real orography in average and much smoother.
      
This approach is more advantageous, both in physics principals and skill enhancement, than the envelope orography method.
      


The envelope orography scheme developed by Wallace et. al.has been shown to improve medium-range weather forecasts of ECMWF. Their numerical experiment data are used for this research. Verifications include zonal mean westerly wind, temperature and meridional circulation, mean meridional flux of angular momentum due to meridional circulations and planetary and synoptic scale eddies. Results show that the introduction of this scheme improves predictions of zonal temperature and wind fields in tropical troposphere,...

The envelope orography scheme developed by Wallace et. al.has been shown to improve medium-range weather forecasts of ECMWF. Their numerical experiment data are used for this research. Verifications include zonal mean westerly wind, temperature and meridional circulation, mean meridional flux of angular momentum due to meridional circulations and planetary and synoptic scale eddies. Results show that the introduction of this scheme improves predictions of zonal temperature and wind fields in tropical troposphere, and simulates better the total eddy angular momentum flux. However predictions of synoptic scale systems and parameterizations of tropical (Convection and culmulus friction have to be improved further.

Wallace等的研究表明,由于引进了包络地形方案,欧洲中期天气预报中心(ECMWF)的中期天气预报有所改善。本文是上述工作的继续。所用的资料为原作者的数值试验结果。检验的对象包括纬向平均风场、温度场和经圈环流,及不同波数域中的涡旋和经圈环流对角动量的平均经向输送。结果表明,在冬季,包络地形方案对低纬地区的温度场和风场的预报略有改进,对总涡旋动量通量的模拟也较好。然而对天气尺度系统的预报和对热带对流及积云摩擦的参数化却有待更进一步改善。

This paper summarizes the results of studies which we have carried out since 1991. The stress is put on two aspects of the improvements and developments of the numerical models with topography and numerical modelings. In the aspect of the model developments and improvements, the next studies are stressed, that is, the expension of the model, the inclusion of the underlying surfaces of different soil types, the developments and applications of the oceanic model. In the numerical modelings, we focus attention...

This paper summarizes the results of studies which we have carried out since 1991. The stress is put on two aspects of the improvements and developments of the numerical models with topography and numerical modelings. In the aspect of the model developments and improvements, the next studies are stressed, that is, the expension of the model, the inclusion of the underlying surfaces of different soil types, the developments and applications of the oceanic model. In the numerical modelings, we focus attention on the new computational scheme of the pressure gradient force - - the error subtraction scheme and its modeling checking, envelope orography experiments, experiments of the effects of the large topography and the atmospheric moist processes on the summer monsoon, the experiments of the effects of the initial desert moisture and the underlying surfaces on climate change, and experiments of the SSTA effects. The other experiments which are not included in this paper can be referred to the authors' papers in this collected works.

本文总结了本专题自1991年正式开展工作以来,围绕着专题的中心内容所做的研究工作结果。着重点放在有地形数值模式的改进和完善以及数值模拟试验这两个方面在模式的改进和完善方面,又着重介绍模式区域的拓宽、土壤下垫面的引入、海洋混合层模式和海洋表层流模式的建立和应用。在数值模拟试验方面,则主要介绍气压梯度力的新算法──“误差扣除法”及其模拟检验、包络地形试验、地形与大气湿过程对夏季风气候特征影响的试验、沙漠初始湿度对气候变化的影响试验、下垫面在气候变化中的作用试验以及海温异常的影响试验。没有在本文中介绍的数值试验结果,可参看本文集中作者等的其它论文。

In order to research the important influence of the meso-scale topography for Chinese weather, an improvement has been made on the horizontal and vertical resolution of REM in order, and has simulated with the higher resolution model to the heavy rain cases of August 4th-5th,1993 and July 12th-13th,1994,using the routine data to get initial field and model orography by envelope method. Compared to the results of A, B, C model and observation, it is found that the precipitation forecast of B model has been...

In order to research the important influence of the meso-scale topography for Chinese weather, an improvement has been made on the horizontal and vertical resolution of REM in order, and has simulated with the higher resolution model to the heavy rain cases of August 4th-5th,1993 and July 12th-13th,1994,using the routine data to get initial field and model orography by envelope method. Compared to the results of A, B, C model and observation, it is found that the precipitation forecast of B model has been improved a little than that of A model, and several pesudo-heavy rain centers have existed. After the horizontal and vertical resolution of REM have been changed, the precipitation and circulation pattern forecast of C model has been improved greatly than that of B model.

针对中尺度地形对我国天气影响的重要性, 本文先后提高了 R E M 的水平和垂直分辨率, 并采用包络地形方法处理模式中尺度地形。运用常规报文资料得到初始场, 对1993 年8 月4 ~5 日, 1994 年7 月12 ~13 日的两次大暴雨个例分别进行了数值试验。结果表明, 仅提高 R E M 的水平分辨率, 对降水预报有一定的改善, 但多报出了几个大暴雨中心; 而对模式水平及垂直分辨率同时提高后, 其降水场、形势场的预报有明显的改进和提高, 虚假降水中心消失。

 
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