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   分子发育生物学 的翻译结果: 查询用时:0.361秒
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分子发育生物学
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  molecular developmental biology
     AMPHIOXUS IN COMPARATIVE GENOMICS AND MOLECULAR DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY
     文昌鱼与比较基因组学和分子发育生物学
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  “分子发育生物学”译为未确定词的双语例句
     As the successive progress and universally application of molecular genetics and molecualr developmental biology in these study areas, it is possible to clarify the phylogenetic relationships of all groups of metazoans on their genetic and developmental mechanisms.
     然而 ,随着分子遗传学和分子发育生物学的不断进展及其在相关研究领域的普遍运用 ,从遗传基础和发育机理上追踪动物各分类群间的系统发生关系已经成为可能 .
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  相似匹配句对
     10 ?
     分子
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     AMPHIOXUS IN COMPARATIVE GENOMICS AND MOLECULAR DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY
     文昌鱼与比较基因组学和分子发育生物学
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     Molecular Medicine
     分子医学
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     Conclusion: We concluded the pepsinogen C could offer excellent molecular markers of differentiation of stomach epithelial cells in developmental biology.
     结论认为在发育生物学的研究中,胃蛋白酶C可作为胃上皮细胞分化的分子标志。
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     THE IMPORTANCE OF BIOLOGY RESEARCH
     应当重视发育生物学的研究
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  molecular developmental biology
This paper argues that the consensus physicalist antireductionism in the philosophy of biology cannot accommodate the research strategy or indeed the recent findings of molecular developmental biology.
      
Finally, the paper seeks a way of defending the two central theses of physicalist antireductionism in the light of the research program of molecular developmental biology, by sharply reducing their metaphysical force.
      
How Molecular is Molecular Developmental Biology A Reply to Alex Rosenberg's Reductionism Redux: Computing the Embryo
      
This account is directly applicable to molecular developmental biology and shares a connection to the theme of hierarchy in homology.
      
Two clues to the general resolution of these alternatives were emerging from molecular developmental biology by the early 1990s.
      


The origins and evolution of metazoa(metazoans) traditionally studied on their comparative morphology and embryology are important issues in animal biology, palaeontology and evolutionary biology. As the successive progress and universally application of molecular genetics and molecualr developmental biology in these study areas, it is possible to clarify the phylogenetic relationships of all groups of metazoans on their genetic and developmental mechanisms. In this paper, we reviewed the molecular phylogeny...

The origins and evolution of metazoa(metazoans) traditionally studied on their comparative morphology and embryology are important issues in animal biology, palaeontology and evolutionary biology. As the successive progress and universally application of molecular genetics and molecualr developmental biology in these study areas, it is possible to clarify the phylogenetic relationships of all groups of metazoans on their genetic and developmental mechanisms. In this paper, we reviewed the molecular phylogeny and discussed the existing problems in metazoan studies, meanwhile, we are also oversighting the studies of matazoan evolution in the future.

后生动物的起源与进化问题一直是动物学、古生物学和进化生物学研究的重要课题 .传统上 ,对其系统发生和亲缘关系的探讨主要是基于比较形态学和比较胚胎学的证据 .然而 ,随着分子遗传学和分子发育生物学的不断进展及其在相关研究领域的普遍运用 ,从遗传基础和发育机理上追踪动物各分类群间的系统发生关系已经成为可能 .本文就近年来后生动物高级分类群 (主要为“门”一级 )的分子系统发生研究及其研究中存在的一些问题作了较为系统的综述 .同时就后生动物系统发生研究的前景作了展望

More and more domestic scholars pay attention to the phylogeny of arthropods recently. This paper focuses on three issues: the relationships between Arthropoda and its kin phyla, the monophyly of Arthropoda, and the relationships among the groups within Arthropoda, with emphasis on the relationships between Hexapoda, Crustacea, and Myriapoda. Many recent studies showed that Tardigrada, Nematoda and Onychophora are the three closest groups of Arthropoda in systematics, rather than Annelida and Mollusca, which...

More and more domestic scholars pay attention to the phylogeny of arthropods recently. This paper focuses on three issues: the relationships between Arthropoda and its kin phyla, the monophyly of Arthropoda, and the relationships among the groups within Arthropoda, with emphasis on the relationships between Hexapoda, Crustacea, and Myriapoda. Many recent studies showed that Tardigrada, Nematoda and Onychophora are the three closest groups of Arthropoda in systematics, rather than Annelida and Mollusca, which were traditionally considered. Other than that, this progress will make some impact on the relationships between the main groups of Arthropoda due to the use of different outgroups in phylogenetic research. Both the problems of the monophyly of Arthropoda and the relationships between the groups within Arthropoda have been debated for many years. Now the dominant views are that (1)Arthropoda is a monophyletic group; (2)Mandibulata, composed of Crustacea, Hexapoda and Myriapoda, is a good monophyletic group, and (3)Crustacea, not Myriapoda, is the closest kin of Hexapoda. Besides these three major issues, the position of Onychophora in the invertebrates and the monophyly of Crustacea and Myriapoda, are also discussed in this paper.Table 1 The progress in the study of the molecular systematics of Arthropoda from 1998 till now [BHDFG3,WK10ZQ,WK9ZQ,WKZQW]author and yearmolecule marksThe phylogeny hypothesis among the main ingroups of ArthropodaGiribet et al.(1998, 1999)18SrDNA(((Hex+Cru)+Myr)+Man)Shultz & Regier (2000)EF-1α & Pol Ⅱ gene (((Hex+Cru)+Myr)+Man)or(((Hex+Cru)+Man)+Myr)Regier & Shultz (2001)EF-2 gene(((Hex+Cru)+Man)+Myr)Friedrich & Tautz (1995, 2001)18S & 28S rDNA((Hex+Cru)+(Myr+Man))Giribet et al.(2001)18S rDNA et al. 8 loci altogether(((Hex+Cru)+Myr)+Man) Note: Hex stands for Hexpoda, Cru for Crustacea, Myr for Myriapoda and Man for Mandibulata.

近年来对节肢动物系统发育问题的认识有了相当大的变化 ,尤其是支序分析研究方法的使用 ,以及来自分子系统学和分子发育生物学的证据 ,成为继比较形态学之后有力的研究手段。近年来的研究显示线虫、缓步类和有爪类是节肢动物的近缘类群 ,而非以前绝大多数学者所认为的软体动物和环节动物。对于节肢动物门的单系性及其内部类群间关系的问题 ,目前倾向于认为(1)节肢动物为单系群 ;(2 )由甲壳类、六足类和多足类联合形成单系群———具颚类 ;(3)与六足类最为近缘的类群是甲壳类 ,而非多足类。其中 ,对第 1点的争议不大 ;第 2点认识得到了形态学和分子系统学两方面研究的支持 ;对第 3点的争议虽较大 ,但就论据而言确为优势观点。

Functional analysis of control genes is playing an important role in animal development.The research is mainly focused on developing a method of estimating the gene's effect or function in the development of animals.In this article,the gene's expression and control are described by models of quantitative genetics,which include the genetic models about the genes with no interaction and interaction effect.On this basis,a method analyzing the functions of control genes in batches is advanced,the method includes...

Functional analysis of control genes is playing an important role in animal development.The research is mainly focused on developing a method of estimating the gene's effect or function in the development of animals.In this article,the gene's expression and control are described by models of quantitative genetics,which include the genetic models about the genes with no interaction and interaction effect.On this basis,a method analyzing the functions of control genes in batches is advanced,the method includes three steps as follows: Firstly,describe the gene's expression and control with multiple regression models in statistic method in different conditions.Secondly,collect the material of gene's polymorphism related to the gene's expression and control.Because,gene's polymorphism or the codominant molecular marker electropherogram in a gene locus present 3 states,and can be expressed with -1,0 and 1 respectively.The author thinks it can be regarded as levels in orthogonal layout.Discard the materials of gene's polymorphism not fitting the orthogonal layout,and use the materials of gene's polymorphism fitting the orthogonal layout as the data to estimate the gene's effects.Thirdly,analyze the gene's effect or function with equations as follows:suppose that a quantitative trait is controlled by N gene loci,in each locus there are two alleles,the alleles' effects are A GM1 ?a GM1 ;A GM2 ? a GM2 ;...;A GMi ?a GMi ;...;A GMN ;a GMN units respectively.When the genotype in a locus is heterozygous A GMi a GMi ,the interaction coefficient of alleles in a locus is K units.If there is no interaction among different gene loci,the author thinks,the gene's effects and gene's type can be estimated by using such equation: P GM =2∑Ni=1(A i-a i+K i)+∑Ni=1(A i-a i)M GMi -∑Ni=1K GMi M GMi 2 If there are interactions among different gene loci,and the effect of the x th gene's state combined with the y th gene's state in the k th gene group is defined as Y xyr ,and let gene group electropherogram states be r (where r∈ ),the author thinks,the gene group's effects can be estimated by the equation: Y xyr = K PCxy0 +K PCxy r+K PCxy' r 2+K PCxy'' 3+K PCxy(3') r 4+K PCxy(4') r 5+K PCxy(5') r 6+K PCxy(6') r 7+K PCxy(7") r 8 If there are interactions among more genes,the analogous method can also be used. In this way,be using the gene's codominent marker materials fitting the orthogonal layout,the gene's expression and control can be researched by the method of multiple regression,the gene's relative effect can be estimated,the overdominant gene's overdominant coefficient can be assessed,the gene's type can be identified,the interaction gene group's relative effect and the interaction gene's relation can be estimated as well,and furthermore,the gene's relation can be expressed in equations.For the sake of understanding the method used in this paper,the rout to prove it is given as well.Finally,the author thinks,this method is very useful to research the gene's function in molecular developmental biology.

动物发育过程中基因的表达与调控是当今生命科学研究的热点 ,本文对动物生长发育过程中基因的表达与调控进行了数量遗传学描述 ,系统地提出了一种批量分析动物生长发育过程中调控基因功能的新方法 ,并提供了证明本文所述方法的基本途径。最后 ,作者说明数量化的基因功能批量分析法对分子发育生物学的研究非常有益。

 
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