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  public goods
Marco Ferroni, Ashoka Mody (eds.): International Public Goods.
      
Incentive mechanism design for public goods provision: Price cap regulation and optimal regulation
      
This paper studies the mechanism design that induces firms to provide public goods under two regulatory means: price cap regulation and optimal regulation, respectively.
      
By solving this problem, we get the two optimal regulatory mechanisms to induce the provision of public goods.
      
Further, by comparative statics, the conclusion is drawn that the welfare loss associated with price cap regulation, with respective to optimal regulation, increases more with increase of the expense of public goods.
      
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  public product
They are the public product created from the Census Bureau's TIGER database.
      
  public products
Social donation is a means for individuals, government organizations, and non-government organizations (NGOs) to provide public products and services for society.
      
This growth has been ascribed to lagging wages, inelastic demands for public products, political clout, changed laws, and reduced professionalism and public spiritedness.
      
Although both analytical kits are listed as public products, it is assumed that these products are used industrially.
      
Sensor data from the core satellite is input to the satellite retrieval algorithms to yield a wide array of GPM-internal products and public products.
      


Based on the case study, the paper describes and analyzes three kind of unreal financial gap between the demand of public goods and the local financial resources in rural townships in China. The author points out that the fiscal transfer must be based on distinguishing the different kind of financial gap, otherwise, the reform in the system of rural taxation and fees will have to face the risks of high political and financial costs. Also, the author points out that there is a tendency of strengthening the position...

Based on the case study, the paper describes and analyzes three kind of unreal financial gap between the demand of public goods and the local financial resources in rural townships in China. The author points out that the fiscal transfer must be based on distinguishing the different kind of financial gap, otherwise, the reform in the system of rural taxation and fees will have to face the risks of high political and financial costs. Also, the author points out that there is a tendency of strengthening the position of agricultural tax in the reform in some areas, which makes the reform in a dilemma.

本文通过对农村税费改革试点县 (市 )乡镇财政状况的调查 ,着重分析了目前我国乡  镇普遍存在的三种不真实的财政缺口 :公共品过度供给引起的财政缺口、非公共品供给引  起的财政缺口和人为夸大的财政缺口。作者指出 ,必须在认真甄别不同类型财政缺口的  基础上制定有效的财政转移支付制度 ,否则将给农村税费改革带来政治成本和财政成本  过高的风险。作者还指出 ,为解决财政缺口一部分地区在农村税费改革中存在着强化农  业税地位的倾向 ,使改革陷入两难境地。因此 ,应对现行农村税费改革中的农业税调整方  案进行修改

Public finance is the basic trends of finance reform in our country, and the achievement of object depends on correctly the broad definition of the function of the government and division of intergovernmental rights and responsibilities. Public good is of a continuous character and hasn't fixed frontier, so it's necessary to set broad definition of the function of the government according to the new Keynesian model and our national situation. The paper considers that a legal normal division of intergovernmental...

Public finance is the basic trends of finance reform in our country, and the achievement of object depends on correctly the broad definition of the function of the government and division of intergovernmental rights and responsibilities. Public good is of a continuous character and hasn't fixed frontier, so it's necessary to set broad definition of the function of the government according to the new Keynesian model and our national situation. The paper considers that a legal normal division of intergovernmental rights and responsibilities according to benefit received scope and efficient provision of public good and international conventions is highly important.

构建公共财政框架是我国今后财政改革的基本方向 ,但要顺利实现目标必须首先重新界定好政府的职能、合理划分政府间的事权关系。由于公共物品的公共性是一个连续区间且无固定边界 ,故政府职能的界定必须以新凯恩斯主义理论为依据 ,并结合中国的国情 ;而政府间事权的划分 ,则必须也有必要从分析公共物品的受益范围和公共品提供效率入手 ,并按国际惯例对此规范化与法制化。

The Welfare Lottery of China(WLC)is one of the effective ways of voluntary provision of public goods,which has been validated by the empirical analysis.In today's China,instead of the income level and income gap,the favorable policy and well issued technology are the important conditions to the WLC's voluntary provision.WLC causes the scale effect,fiscal effect and social equality effect.We put forward some suggestions of perfecting the institution.

福利彩票是中国公共品自愿供给的一种有效形式,现阶段有效运用福利彩票自愿公共品的条件主要是优惠的管理政策和完善的发行技术,人均收入水平及其差距对福利彩票发行影响较小。中国福利彩票自愿供给公共品对社会经济产生了规模效应、财政效应和社会公平效应。

 
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