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食物强化
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  food fortification
     Dietary intervention or food fortification with some mircronutrients could be used for improving the situation.
     本文分析的结果可以为分区或分省进行微量营养素膳食干预或食物强化提供参考。
短句来源
     The current paper is a narrative developed from these interviews, it described the macro-environment when food fortification has been promoted by various international organizations and donors as a major nutrition intervention strategy to developing countries, the laboratory and field work in developing and testing NaFeEDTA-fortified soy sauce by Chinese scientists, the policy environment within China regarding food fortification and nutrition intervention strategy, and the policy process of how iron-fortified soy sauce entered the commercial market.
     本文是对这些素材的初步整理 ,从国际上以食物强化作为向发展中国家援助的主要营养干预手段的宏观环境 ,我国NaFeEDTA铁强化酱油的开发研究 ,国内推动食物强化、营养干预的政策环境 ,以及各方面在NaFeEDTA铁强化酱油从科研走向市场的过程中所做的工作这四个方面来描述铁强化酱油发展的政策过程。
短句来源
     From the angle of public nutrition improvement,food fortification is the most safe,economic and effective way.
     从公众营养改善的角度来说,食物强化是最为安全、经济和有效的方式。
短句来源
  “食物强化”译为未确定词的双语例句
     Method: Four pigeons were trained to discriminate 5.0 mg·kg-1 morphine from saline under a fixed-ratio (FR20) schedule of reinforcement.
     方法··:用固定比率食物强化方法训练鸽子辨别5mg·kg-1吗啡和盐水。
短句来源
     MethodsThrough food rewarding rats were trained in a normal and reversal visual discrimination task in a rotaing T-maze.
     方法利用旋转T迷宫装置 ,通过食物强化 ,分别训练大鼠正常和逆反的视觉辨别学习任务。
短句来源
     The automated nocturnal (16∶00-07∶00) test sessions lasted 15 hours with alternating ON (30 min) and OFF (60 min) periods. Food reward was available only during the ON periods and made contingent to the requirements of two different schedules of positive reinforcement: Differential Reinforcement of High Rate (DRH) and Differential Reinforcement of Low Rate (DRL).
     将夜间进行的15小时测定分为30分钟活动和60分钟非活动期,只有在活动期才可得到食物强化,并安排了高频度差别强化率(DRH)和低频度差别强化率(DRL)两个不同程序。
短句来源
     Method: To train the rats to discriminate methamphetamine (MA) from saline by food reinforcer under fixed-ratio schedule.
     方法··:用固定比率食物强化方法使大鼠对甲基苯丙胺 (MA)形成稳定的辨别效应。
短句来源
     METHODS: Two lever and a fixed-ratio schedule of food presentation reinforcement program were used in discrimination test session.
     方法:采用双杆、固定比率食物强化型辨别实验程序。
短句来源
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  相似匹配句对
     Food of Americans
     美式食物
短句来源
     unfit food
     食物禁忌
短句来源
     insist nicety;
     强化准确;
短句来源
     Influence of Food Processing on the Quality of Fortified Edible Oil with Vitamin A
     食物加工方式对维A强化食用油品质的影响
短句来源
     METHODS: Two lever and a fixed-ratio schedule of food presentation reinforcement program were used in discrimination test session.
     方法:采用双杆、固定比率食物强化型辨别实验程序。
短句来源
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  food fortification
The relative bioavailability in humans of elemental iron powders for use in food fortification
      
Development of a model for optimal food fortification: vitamin D among adults in Finland
      
The iron compounds used for food fortification have to meet certain requisites related to their bioavailability, absorption mechanism, and toxicity, since they will be consumed by a massive population group.
      
Stabilized ferrous gluconate as iron source for food fortification
      
Food fortification has been shown to be an effective strategy to overcome iron malnutrition.
      
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  food reinforcement
The audibility thresholds for the test signals are measured at 10-kHz steps, both in the presence of the pulse jam and in its absence, on the basis of the conditioned-reflex method with food reinforcement.
      
Key-pecking responses, maintained by a variable-interval schedule of food reinforcement, were punished by brief electric shocks.
      
This study investigated the effects of methamphetamine and pentobarbital on the performance of pigeons trained to peck a key on two alternating schedules of food reinforcement.
      
AMP was also given to Ss trained to respond on one of three response levers for milk, water or food reinforcement.
      
Food reinforcement was assigned according to a fixed interval or on the basis of differential reinforcement of low rate in a multiple schedule of reinforcement.
      
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The effect of Schizandra chinensis Baillon on the higher nervous activity of the dog was studied with the conditioned reflex method in a specially constructed soundproof chamber. A positive reflex of salivary secretion was established on condition that the dog was given the metronome sound (80/min) as a conditioned stimulus and the food, an unconditioned stimulus (reinforcement). By means of stopping repeated reinforcement, the effect of the aqueous extract of the drug on conditioned stimuli might be tested...

The effect of Schizandra chinensis Baillon on the higher nervous activity of the dog was studied with the conditioned reflex method in a specially constructed soundproof chamber. A positive reflex of salivary secretion was established on condition that the dog was given the metronome sound (80/min) as a conditioned stimulus and the food, an unconditioned stimulus (reinforcement). By means of stopping repeated reinforcement, the effect of the aqueous extract of the drug on conditioned stimuli might be tested in order to investigate how far the extinction would be influenced. It was found that the effect of the drug depended chiefly on the dosage and the stability of the extinctive inhibition in the test. A dose of 0.03 g/kg of the drug diminished the extinctive inhibition at the early stage of extinguishing, as shown by delaying the appearance of extinction. A similar but unstable effect was obtained with a dose of 0.05g/kg, and the extinctive inhibition was strengthened with doses of 0.1-0.2 g/kg, as shown by the earlier appearance of extinction. However, once the extinctive inhibition was firmly established, there was no effect even with the large doses. With smaller doses, the drug behaved like caffeine, but was weaker.

国外文献关于北五味子对条件反射的影响说法不一。本工作就此问题作某些探讨。以拍节音作为条件刺激结合食物强化对犬形成阳性条件反射,而后使其消退,并观察不同剂量的北五味子对消退抑制的影响。实验证明,在条件反射消退初期,对犬使用小剂量(0.03克/公斤)的北五味子能减弱消退抑制;0.05克/公斤时效果不定;0.1—0.2克/公斤时能加强消退抑制.但当消退抑制已巩固形成后,则北五味子不论剂量大小皆不表现任何影响。小剂量北五味子对消退抑制的影响在表现上与咖啡碱相似,但较后者为弱,因为后者当消退抑制巩固形成后仍能使消退抑制减弱。

? Objective To evaluate the experimental prerequisites needed for long term studies in neurotoxicology, strain and age dependent changes were assesed Methods (sp) rats using computer controlled operant behavior tests.In inbred Wistar and Sprague Dawley rat performance was tested at three age points (4,10,and 19 months) in 10 simultaneously operated standardized test cages. The automated nocturnal (16∶00-07∶00) test sessions lasted 15 hours with alternating ON (30 min) and OFF (60 min) periods. Food reward...

? Objective To evaluate the experimental prerequisites needed for long term studies in neurotoxicology, strain and age dependent changes were assesed Methods (sp) rats using computer controlled operant behavior tests.In inbred Wistar and Sprague Dawley rat performance was tested at three age points (4,10,and 19 months) in 10 simultaneously operated standardized test cages. The automated nocturnal (16∶00-07∶00) test sessions lasted 15 hours with alternating ON (30 min) and OFF (60 min) periods. Food reward was available only during the ON periods and made contingent to the requirements of two different schedules of positive reinforcement: Differential Reinforcement of High Rate (DRH) and Differential Reinforcement of Low Rate (DRL). Each test was presented to the 10 subjects of one test group in three consecutive steps with incrementally increased learning demand: DRH 2/1, DRH 4/2, DRH 8/4 resp. DRL 1/8, DRL 1/16, DRL 1/32. In addtion, DRH 8/4 and DRL 1/32 were repeated 6 times to obtain the acquisition performance. Replicates of this test sequence were run in the same subjects after an interval of 6 and again of 9 months. Results DRH performance improved with age in both strains (P<0.05), but strain differences were not clear. DRL performence, however, showed no clear age dependent improvement, but strain differences were demonstrated by a better performance of Wistar rats in comparison to their SD peers in the first and the second tests (P<0.05). Unfortunately, the SD rats died of old age before the end of the 3rd test replicate. The analysis of ON OFF discrimination ability and of the acquisition performance in DRH as well as in DRL test sets showed a similar trend. Conclusions Both rat strains learned quickly the simple test procedures and showed a good retention of the acquired tasks even after longer delays. However, in the more complex DRL test sequence,Wistar rats demonstrated a better performence than SD rats. obviously, studies with neurobehavioral endpoints should consider the mutual influence of age, strain, and conditioning parameters.

研究品系和年龄增长对大鼠操作行为的影响。方法对SD和Wistar两种近交系大鼠三个年龄段(4、10、19月龄)时,于电脑控制的Skinner测定箱中,采用正性强化物,进行了操作行为测定。将夜间进行的15小时测定分为30分钟活动和60分钟非活动期,只有在活动期才可得到食物强化,并安排了高频度差别强化率(DRH)和低频度差别强化率(DRL)两个不同程序。每个程度按不断提高的学习要求又分为三个连续性阶梯:DRH2/1、DRH4/2、DRH8/4及DRL1/8、DRL1/8、DRL1/16、DRH1/32。并对程度DRH8/4和DRL1/32各进行了连续六天的获得性学习测定。对相同对象在6个月和9个月的间隔后进行了重复测定。结果在DRH程序,随着年龄的增长,两品系鼠学习成绩都提高(P<0.05),品系差异不明显。然而在DRL程度,成绩随年龄增长改变不大,Wistar鼠的成绩却始终比同年龄段SD鼠好(P<0.05);遗憾的是SD鼠于第三次实验前大部分死亡而结果缺如。对明暗分辨学习成绩及DRH8/4和DRL1/32两个程序获得性学习的分析亦呈现相同趋势。结论提示两品系大鼠都能很快学会简单程序,而且在较长间隔后...

研究品系和年龄增长对大鼠操作行为的影响。方法对SD和Wistar两种近交系大鼠三个年龄段(4、10、19月龄)时,于电脑控制的Skinner测定箱中,采用正性强化物,进行了操作行为测定。将夜间进行的15小时测定分为30分钟活动和60分钟非活动期,只有在活动期才可得到食物强化,并安排了高频度差别强化率(DRH)和低频度差别强化率(DRL)两个不同程序。每个程度按不断提高的学习要求又分为三个连续性阶梯:DRH2/1、DRH4/2、DRH8/4及DRL1/8、DRL1/8、DRL1/16、DRH1/32。并对程度DRH8/4和DRL1/32各进行了连续六天的获得性学习测定。对相同对象在6个月和9个月的间隔后进行了重复测定。结果在DRH程序,随着年龄的增长,两品系鼠学习成绩都提高(P<0.05),品系差异不明显。然而在DRL程度,成绩随年龄增长改变不大,Wistar鼠的成绩却始终比同年龄段SD鼠好(P<0.05);遗憾的是SD鼠于第三次实验前大部分死亡而结果缺如。对明暗分辨学习成绩及DRH8/4和DRL1/32两个程序获得性学习的分析亦呈现相同趋势。结论提示两品系大鼠都能很快学会简单程序,而且在较长间隔后对之仍有较?

The lung toxicity and antitoxicity of Atmospheric total suspended particles were studied in rats using bronchoinjection to observe the antitoxic effect of VA,VE,VC,Zn,Se supplemented into the food.It was found that in the group of positive the ratio of the viscera and body weight had changed,the ratio of lung,liver,spleen and body weight increased and lactic dehydrogenase(LDH),acid phosphatase(ACP),acetylneuraminic acid(NA) in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid also increased,and lipid peroxidation(LPO)increased,glutathione...

The lung toxicity and antitoxicity of Atmospheric total suspended particles were studied in rats using bronchoinjection to observe the antitoxic effect of VA,VE,VC,Zn,Se supplemented into the food.It was found that in the group of positive the ratio of the viscera and body weight had changed,the ratio of lung,liver,spleen and body weight increased and lactic dehydrogenase(LDH),acid phosphatase(ACP),acetylneuraminic acid(NA) in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid also increased,and lipid peroxidation(LPO)increased,glutathione peroxidase(GSHPx)decreased in the homogenate of lung significantly.The groups of negative and supplemented VA,VE,VC,Zn,Se had no difference in the statistics.The results showed that the air particles had lung toxicity and VA,VE,VC,Zn,Se had the function of antitoxicity of lung.

为探讨大气总悬浮颗粒物的肺毒性和抗毒性物质,采用支气管直接注入染毒的方式和食物强化VA、VE、VC、Zn和Se的方法进行实验研究,结果表明染毒后大鼠脏体比发生变化,肺体比、肝体比和脾体比阳性对照组高于阴性对照组和各强化组并具有统计学意义,而各强化组与阴性组相比差别无显著性。同样大鼠肺灌洗液中LDH、ACP和NA的变化也显示阳性组高于阴性对照组和各强化组,而各强化组与阴性对照组相比差别无显著性。肺组织匀浆中LPO、GSH-Px测定结果表明阳性组LPO增高、GSH-Px下降,各强化组变化不明显。说明大气颗粒物可诱发体内产生脂质过氧化并引起肺部损伤,VA、VE、VC、Zn和Se具有减轻大气颗粒物致肺部的损伤作用。

 
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