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  pre-x
     After sequencing, 27 clones from 45 clones (60%) were found encoding the pre-X peptide. Eighteen from 27 clones (66.7%) pre-X coding sequences were found from C genotype.
     克隆测序的45个克隆中,27个(60%) 克隆编码前-X多肽,其中18个(66.7%)克隆来自C基因型.
短句来源
     In the study group, 33.61% strains encoded pre-pre-S peptide, 14.3% strains encoded pre-X peptide, 26.05% strains had no function of encoding pre-C peptide, whereas, 94.1% of pre-X coding strains also encoded pre-pre-S peptide.
     在病毒群中,33.61%的病毒株编码前前-S多肽,14.3%的病毒株编码前-X多肽, 26.1%的病毒株不编码前-C多肽,94.1%编码前-X多肽的病毒株同时编码前前-S多肽.
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     CONCLUSION: Pre-X region may be a serotype-specific coding gene.
     结论:在HBV基因组中存在有一新的ORF,命名为前-X区,该区可能是一种HBV血清型特异性编码区。
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     Pre-X region was amplified by PCR method, and TA cloning technique was used to clone the DNA fragment into pGEM Teasy vector. After sequencing of the target region, Vector 8.0 software was used to analysis the sequences.
     之后将前-X区扩增,TA克隆到pGEM Teasy载体后进行单克隆测序,利用Vector 8.0软件进行序列分析.
短句来源
     Region coding pre-pre-S gene was popular in the strains. Pre-X region might be a serotype-specific gene. A2608C/T and/or C/A2733T replacement mutation resulted in disability of coding pre-X gene.
     前-前-S区的存在是较为普遍的现象,而前-X区的编码具有adr血清型特异性特点,在某些病毒基因组中,因为存在A2608→C/T、和C/A2733→T替换突变,导致其前-X基因编码区起始密码子突变,因此部分HBV基因组无前-X基因结构区.
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     岗教育 ;
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     PRECANCEROUS LESIONS
     癌病变
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Nine pathologically verified cases of double primary carcinomas of the esophagus and stomach are analyzed. All of the patients are males over the ages of 50. Barium meal roentgenography showed evidence of a lesion in the esophagus preope-ratively in each case. Pathological examination of the resected specimens revealed that there was another cancer in either the cardia or esophagus apart from the already discovered one. The cancer in the esophagus are in the main squmous cell carcinomas in the advanced stage....

Nine pathologically verified cases of double primary carcinomas of the esophagus and stomach are analyzed. All of the patients are males over the ages of 50. Barium meal roentgenography showed evidence of a lesion in the esophagus preope-ratively in each case. Pathological examination of the resected specimens revealed that there was another cancer in either the cardia or esophagus apart from the already discovered one. The cancer in the esophagus are in the main squmous cell carcinomas in the advanced stage. Among those in the cardia, 8 are adenocarcino-mas or adenosqumous carcinomas ( 3 are early adenocarcinomas ), where as in one case the double primary squmous cell carcinomas are located in the esophagus and cardia. The shortest distance between the double cancers is 2 cm. While the longest distance is 7 cm. Among 7 patients that have been followed up, 2 surived more than ten years. A brief review of the literature regarding carcinogenesis of double primaries in the esophagus and stomach is made. Field canceri/ation theory as advocated by slaughter in 1953 has been given attention. It seems that close observations have shown that cancer areses from a wide field rather than one point. It is assumed that the same carcinogenic agent may exert its effect over a wide field in the organs involved so that the carcinomatous changes in the neighbouring organs such as the esophagus and stomach can take place. They may either be simultaneous or occur one after the other. The material in this series may speak in favour of this theory. The author holds that the detailed examination of the neighbouring organs should be emphasized during the diagnosis of an esophageal cancer.

本文报告9例食管与胃的双原发癌。术前X线钡餐造影仅发现食管癌,术后病理检查,在贲门部又发现有另一个原发癌。其中食管病变均为鳞状细胞癌,且为晚期病变。贲门部病变中,8例为腺癌或腺鳞癌,1例为食管与贲门的双原发鳞状细胞癌。双原发癌间的距离为2~7厘米。在7例已经随访的病例中,2例术后10年健在。作者简要地复习了有关食管、胃双原发癌的文献,认为生癌野(Field Cancerization)学说值得重视;并提出在食管癌诊断与处理的过程中,必须注意相邻器官另一个原发癌存在的可能性。

X-ray features of 8 cases of early gastric cancer discovered in our clinical work were briefly described. One of them showed a small filling defect at the greater curvature of prepyloric region. 5 cases were mainly ulcerative in appearance. One case with no remarkable abnormality in preoperative x-ray examination but biopsy verified chronic gastritis with carcinomatous change. Retrospective review of the x-ray films discovered that the lesser curvature of prepyloric region was flattened and slightly blurred....

X-ray features of 8 cases of early gastric cancer discovered in our clinical work were briefly described. One of them showed a small filling defect at the greater curvature of prepyloric region. 5 cases were mainly ulcerative in appearance. One case with no remarkable abnormality in preoperative x-ray examination but biopsy verified chronic gastritis with carcinomatous change. Retrospective review of the x-ray films discovered that the lesser curvature of prepyloric region was flattened and slightly blurred. In the last case there were three gas bubble like filling defects at the cardiac region which verified later as an early adenocarcinoma.According to our retrospective study, we considered that early gastric cancers can be discovered by barium meal examination. The key point is how to discover the lesion as early as possible. The technigue of double contrast method used in our department was introduced.

本文简要地叙述了我院临床诊断中发现并经病理证实的8例早期胃癌的X线所见。其中1例表现为胃窦幽门前区大弯侧充盈缺损;5例以溃疡病变为主;1例术前X线检查未发现异常,活检证实胃窦小弯侧慢性胃窦炎伴有腺体不典型增生及癌变,后再复习其X线片发现胃窦小弯侧较平,轮廓毛糙,1例X线检查发现胃底贲门部有小气泡样充盈缺损,手术证实为腺癌。 通过本组病例复习,我们认为早期胃癌只要在粘膜上有一定的直观所见,在X线胃肠造影中是能够显示出来而且也可以被认识的,但关键在于早期发现,为此简单地介绍了我院采用的口服发泡剂双重造影方法及操作技术。

We try to extend B. C. Low's study on nonlinear force-free magnetic field and therefore to explain preflare low-lying magnetic loops phenomenon which was observed in Skylab mission. Using B. C. Low's analytical continuation method, a revised boundary-value problem of two-dimensional nonlinear force-free magnetic field is solved analytically. It is shown that higher magnetic loops evolve towards low-lying magnetic loops when both the sheared angle between magnetic field line and magnetic neutral line increases...

We try to extend B. C. Low's study on nonlinear force-free magnetic field and therefore to explain preflare low-lying magnetic loops phenomenon which was observed in Skylab mission. Using B. C. Low's analytical continuation method, a revised boundary-value problem of two-dimensional nonlinear force-free magnetic field is solved analytically. It is shown that higher magnetic loops evolve towards low-lying magnetic loops when both the sheared angle between magnetic field line and magnetic neutral line increases with time and the foot-points of magnetic field line move close up to the magnetic neutral line. The density, temperature and the electric current density are higher in the low-lying magnetic loops than in the higher magnetic loops. We believe it is the low-lying magnetic loops that provide condition for flare building up, especially for proton flare building up.

本文试图推广B.C.Low(刘文才)的关于非线性无力磁场的工作并用来解释耀斑前中性线两侧磁场梯度的增加,中性线上暗条的形成和耀斑前X射线和远紫外线照片上的低磁弧现象。同时预言耀斑中高能现象的爆发源高度随能谱变硬而下降。

 
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