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Neither experiment showed enhanced performance, suggesting that language can augment visualspatial representations only if it conveys very specific information (e.g.




 This research investigated the visual spatial representations,mathematical problem solving and spatial visualization ability of forth grade,fifth grade,and sixth grade elementary school students.The results are as follows:Fifth grade and sixth grade students performed better than forth grade ones in mathematical problem solving and the use of schematic representations.No significant differences in the use of pictorial representations among the grade groups.The mathematical problems were further divided... This research investigated the visual spatial representations,mathematical problem solving and spatial visualization ability of forth grade,fifth grade,and sixth grade elementary school students.The results are as follows:Fifth grade and sixth grade students performed better than forth grade ones in mathematical problem solving and the use of schematic representations.No significant differences in the use of pictorial representations among the grade groups.The mathematical problems were further divided into three different categories on the basis of task difficulty.Grade difference generally existed in the first subsample of these problems.Sixth grade students were more competent in spatial visualization than forth grade students.  本研究考察并比较了四至六年级儿童的视觉—空间表征策略、数学问题解决和空间视觉化能力。结果表明 :五、六年级儿童的解题正确率、使用图式表征策略的程度显著高于四年级儿童 ;使用图像表征策略的程度各年级无显著差异。将数学问题分成三个难度等级 ,发现年级差异主要表现在难度等级 1的题目上。另外 ,六年级儿童的空间视觉化能力显著高于四年级儿童。  By using clinical interview, this study investigated mathematical problem solvin g,visualspatial representations, and spatial visualization ability among 30 children with learning disabilities(MD) and 31 children without MD. The results showed that: Schematic representations promote mathematical problem solving succ ess, but pictorial representations may present an obstacle to mathematical probl em solving. The correlations of spatial visualization ability with mathematical problem solving and with use of... By using clinical interview, this study investigated mathematical problem solvin g,visualspatial representations, and spatial visualization ability among 30 children with learning disabilities(MD) and 31 children without MD. The results showed that: Schematic representations promote mathematical problem solving succ ess, but pictorial representations may present an obstacle to mathematical probl em solving. The correlations of spatial visualization ability with mathematical problem solving and with use of schematic representations were positive and sign ificant. The correlations between spatial visualization ability and use of picto rial imagery were negative and significant. Children with MD performed poorer th an those without MD on mathematical problem solving and use of schematic represe ntations. The extent of use of pictorial representations by children with MD was significantly higher than that of those without mathematical learning disab ilities. Both children with MD and without MD performed better and better on mat hematical problem solving and use of schematic representations with the progress of the grade. However, use of pictorial representations declined with the progr ess of the grade among children without MD, but children with MD didn't show the same trend. Spatial visualization ability of both children with MD and without MD improved with the progress of the grade.  采用临床访谈的方法 ,考察了 3 0名数学学习不良 (MD)儿童和 3 1名一般儿童的数学问题解决、视觉 空间表征策略和空间视觉化能力。结果发现 :图式表征能促进数学问题的解决 ,图像表征则起妨碍作用 ;空间视觉化能力与解题正确率及图式表征策略有显著正相关 ,与图像表征策略有显著负相关。MD儿童的解题正确率以及使用图式表征策略的程度显著低于一般儿童 ,使用图像表征策略的程度则显著高于一般儿童。在解题正确率和图式表征策略这两个变量上 ,MD儿童和一般儿童的年级发展趋势相同 ,都随年级的升高而提高。但在图像表征策略的使用上 ,一般儿童有随年级的升高而下降的趋势 ,MD儿童却没有下降的趋势。两类儿童的空间视觉化能力都随年级的升高而提高。  Two types of mathematical word problems were developed: nonvisual problems (NVP) and visual problems (VP). By using mathematics test and individual interview, this study investigated visualspatial representations in mathematical word problem solving among 54 elementary school students with different mathematical performance in grade 4, grade 5, and grade 6. The results showed that: Schematic representations promote NVP and VP solving success, whereas pictorial representations may present an obstacle to NVP... Two types of mathematical word problems were developed: nonvisual problems (NVP) and visual problems (VP). By using mathematics test and individual interview, this study investigated visualspatial representations in mathematical word problem solving among 54 elementary school students with different mathematical performance in grade 4, grade 5, and grade 6. The results showed that: Schematic representations promote NVP and VP solving success, whereas pictorial representations may present an obstacle to NVP solving but show no correlations with VP solving; therefore schematic representations and pictorial representations may have different meanings in the two types of mathematical word problems. The students in grade 6 performed better than the others in mathematical problem solving and use of schematic representations, but no grade differences existed in use of pictorial representations. The lowachievers in mathematics were poor in use of schematic representations, but the extent of use of pictorial representations in VP solving was higher than that of highachievers and averageachievers. The highachievers performed better than the others in transferring from nonvisualspatial representations to schematic representations in NVP solving.  本研究区分了两类数学应用题:非视觉化题目与视觉化题目,采用数学测验与个别访谈相结合的方法,考察了54名小学四、五、六年级不同学业水平学生的视觉空间表征。结果表明:图式表征在非视觉化题目与视觉化题目上都极大地促进了问题解决,图像表征妨碍非视觉化题目的解决但与视觉化题目的解决无关,并提出图式表征和图像表征在两类题目上有不同的含义。六年级学生的解题成绩及图式表征有显著的提高,但图像表征与年级因素无关。差生的图式表征能力很差,而在视觉化题目上使用图像表征显著地多于优生及中等生。在非视觉化题目的非视觉空间表征与图式表征之间的转换灵活性上,优生表现了明显的优势。   << 更多相关文摘 
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