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The object of the present work is to investigate the characteristics of piezo-electric resonantors which are cut from the natural coloured quartz, and compare the results with those obtained from those plates cut from the ordinary clear quartz in order to see if coloured quartz might be used as piezo-electric material in practice. In this work four points were stressed, they are: (1) the frequency constants of piezo-electric oscillation, (2) its stability, (3) its selectivity and activity and (4) its frequency-temperature...

The object of the present work is to investigate the characteristics of piezo-electric resonantors which are cut from the natural coloured quartz, and compare the results with those obtained from those plates cut from the ordinary clear quartz in order to see if coloured quartz might be used as piezo-electric material in practice. In this work four points were stressed, they are: (1) the frequency constants of piezo-electric oscillation, (2) its stability, (3) its selectivity and activity and (4) its frequency-temperature coefficient curves. Further more a comparison of the characteristics of oscillations before and after the heat-treatment of the material was made. By the results of these experiments it concludes that the natural coloured quartz plates can be excited into piezo-electric oscillation and serve as piezo-electric resonantors. The frequency constant of a Y-cut plate from coloured quartz is about 2% lower than that of same type cut plate from clear quartz, while the frequency constants of the X-cut plate and the AT-cut plate from the coloured and clear quartz are practically the same. The heat-treatment to the three types cut plates of both kinds of quartz has a definite influence on their frequency. This effect is more pronounced to the coloured quartz plates. Likewise, heat-treatment improves, from the point-view of statistics, the selectivity and activity of oscillation of both kinds of quartz. Finally, the values of some coefficients of stiffness of the coloured and clear quartz were discussed.

本文的目的在于研究天然有色水晶在当作压电共振器用时它的压电振荡性能,并与无色水晶在这方面的性能上作一比较,以推断有色水晶是否可以应用到实际的控制电路振荡的工作中去。我们的工作分四方面进行:(一)有色水晶压电振荡的频率常数,(二)有色水晶压电振荡的稳定性,(三)有色水晶压电振荡的选择性及活动性,(四)有色水晶压电振荡的频率——温度系数。并且把有色水晶在用热处理方法去色后的这四方面实验结果与去色前的作一比较。实验的结果证明有色水晶是可以被激发压电振荡的,和无色水晶一样可以作控制电路振荡之用。有色水晶的Y-截法的频率常数比无色水晶的约低2%。至于两种水晶的其余两种X-截法及AT-截法的频率常数基本上无差别。热处理能使两种水晶的三种截法的压电振荡频率有增高的倾向,这效应在有色水晶中更为显著。同样,热处理对于两种水晶三种截法的压电振荡的选择性及活动性,在统计数字上看来是有益处的。最后,就以上测量的结果,推算了并讨论了有色水晶和无色水晶的若干劲度系数异同之点。

~~

作者讨论了三个参变數大气模式的必要性,作者提出溫度平均遞減率(穩定性)是需要考虑的一个参变數,作者也將基培尔的理論推廣到三个参变數的大气模式,而得到天气系統發展的简单定性規律,即当(γ,h)<0時,地面气压降低,当(γ,h)>0時,地面气压升高。其中γ是对流層的平均遞減率,h是厚度,( )代表Jacobian式。

Occurrence of sporadic diseased plant centers during or after the bloomingperiod is considered as reliable indication of the current year's forthcomingoutbreak of late blight in a potato farm. Incubation period of each secondary infection being about 4 days,is ratherconstant during the blight epiphytotic season under Chahar conditions.The timeinterval between the appearance of initial diseased plant centers to final totalblight in a potato field varies greatly,however,not only from locality to localitywith different...

Occurrence of sporadic diseased plant centers during or after the bloomingperiod is considered as reliable indication of the current year's forthcomingoutbreak of late blight in a potato farm. Incubation period of each secondary infection being about 4 days,is ratherconstant during the blight epiphytotic season under Chahar conditions.The timeinterval between the appearance of initial diseased plant centers to final totalblight in a potato field varies greatly,however,not only from locality to localitywith different climatic conditions but also from field to field under similarclimatic conditions.Our data record a range of 18-42 days.Circumstantial eviden-ces indicate that this variation is due,on the one hand,to the rainfall whichinfluences the amounts of sporulation and the frequency of penetration of thepathogene,and on the other hand,to cultural and other factors that determinethe vigor and the rate of aging of the plant itself. Actual counts of lesions formed from secondary infection in the early periodof the spread of the disease in a potato field,reveal that their distribution bearsdirect relation with the direction of the prevailing wind.It is estimated that over90% of spores fall within a rectangle of 800 sq.m.around a diseased plantcenter along the loci of wind directions. On the basis of possible function of absorbed copper ions in the enhancementof plant resistance to late blight,field experiments have been conducted by using0.1 - 0.2% copper sulfate solutions as spray.Results show that spraying 2-3 timesat 7-10 days' interval,started soon after the appearance of diseased plant center,gives remarkable control of late blight and corresponding reduction of loss inyield.The copper sulfate spray,though less effective and stable in comparisonwith the bordeaux spray,has the advantage of being more economical and easierto apply.Further experiments with the pu:pose of modifying and improving themethod are in progress.

從馬鈴薯的開花期起可能在田间出现的晚疫病中心病株是本田當年病害即將大量發生的重要標誌。每次再侵染的潛育期,在張家口壩下地區的氣候下,大約4天。從病害的最初發現到全面枯死所經過的日期囚種種外界環境條件而有很大的差別,我們所觀察到的是18—42天。根據調查资料來推測,一方面,促進病菌孢子形成数量和侵入數量的雨水,另一方面,决定植株衰老速度的栽培條件,是這種差別的主要原因。田間再侵染所形成的病斑之分佈情况說明病菌孢子的傳播与風向有直接的關係。估計90%以土的孢子落在中心病株附近順着風向的800平方米的長方形面積上。根據馬鈴薯地上部吸收銅素以提高共抗病力的可能性,利用0.1—0.2%硫酸銅溶液作為噴射劑,在田间中心病株發現的時期開始每隔7—10天喷射共2—3次,可以顯著地降低晚疫病的為害,提高產量。這個方法在共效驗及穩定性上不如波爾多液,在藥劑費用的節省及施用的方便上則勝之?椒ǖ母牧己吞岣哒谶M一步研究中。

 
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