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  sperm precedence
Variation of sperm precedence in the rove beetle Aleochara Curtula (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae)
      
Sperm mixing occurs in the spermatheca providing partial sperm precedence.
      
The sterile male technique: a source of error in estimating levels of sperm precedence
      
Sperm precedence is a useful descriptor of the outcome and possible processes of sperm competition between (usually) two males.
      
Although sperm precedence values are known for a variety of taxa, a characteristic feature has been the profound, and largely unexplained, variance in precedence.
      
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Females copulate with multiple males in almost all insect species. This behavior allows different males to compete for fertilization and gives females the opportunity to mediate this competition. The eggs are typically fertilized by sperm from only one male, either the female's last mate or an earlier mate. The rice grasshopper, Oxya yezoensis Shiraki, shows not only multiple copulation, but also prolonged copulation and prolonged post-copulatory mounting between males and females. In this paper, sperm competition,...

Females copulate with multiple males in almost all insect species. This behavior allows different males to compete for fertilization and gives females the opportunity to mediate this competition. The eggs are typically fertilized by sperm from only one male, either the female's last mate or an earlier mate. The rice grasshopper, Oxya yezoensis Shiraki, shows not only multiple copulation, but also prolonged copulation and prolonged post-copulatory mounting between males and females. In this paper, sperm competition, measured by the P_2-value, (i.e., the proportion of offspring sired by the last male to mate) and the adaptive significance of prolonged post-copulatory mounting were studied by employing interspecific crosses.Females of O. yezoensis were mated once with a male and were allowed to deposit up to four egg pods. The egg pods all had a high hatching success and hatching remained almost constant over the four successive egg pods. The results indicated that the rice grasshopper, like many other insects, store the sperms received from a male, which are then gradually released for fertilizing eggs efficaciously. To determine the P_2-value of O. yezoensis, the female was mated with a male of O. yezoensis or O. chinensis formosana first and was allowed to lay one egg pod. It was then mated with a male of O. chinensis formosana or O. yezoensis and was allowed to lay two egg pods. Remated females all showed high P_2-values and no significant difference was found in P_2-value between the two tests sequence, indicating that sperms from the two species can fertilize eggs equally well. The average P_2-value of O. yezoensis was 94.3%±5.3% (mean±SD). Other females were each allowed to mate with three males, i.e., mated with a male of O. yezoensis or O. chinensis formosana first, then with O. chinensis formosana or O. yezoensis, and then remated with the first mated male. In all the crosses, high P_2-values (>90%) were also found. Those results indicated the sperm precedence of last male to mate and suggested the existence of sperm displacement in O. yezoensis. To measure the lengths of copulation and post-copulatory mounting, females and males paired in separate cages were observed every hour over three consecutive days. The mean lengths of copulation and post-copulatory mounting were 5.6±4.3 h and 6.5±5.5h (mean±SD), respectively, showing not only prolonged copulation, but also prolonged post-copulatory mounting. Considering the relatively high P_2-value, prolonged post-copulatory mounting may be regarded as mate guarding. A male's staying with his mate as post-copulatory mounting increases the number of eggs that he fertilizes because he prevents his partner from remating.

许多昆虫有多次交配行为 ,因多次交配而引起不同雄虫的精子竞争 ,提供雌虫一种有效的性选择方式。小翅稻蝗 (Oxyayezoensis Shiraki)具多次交配行为 ,雌雄交配时间长 ,且交配后常伴有长时间的抱对行为。利用近缘种的种间交配 ,对小翅稻蝗的精子竞争、交配后抱对行为的适应意义进行了探讨。结果表明 ,小翅稻蝗的 P2 值 (最后交配雄虫子代的比例 )达 94 .3%±5 .3% ,说明最后交配雄虫的精子优先用于卵子的受精 ,交配时存在着精子置换。长时间的交配后抱对行为是为了阻止雌虫与不同雄虫个体的再交配 ,保护精子免被置换。

Laboratory studies of the cellar spider, Pholcus beijingensis(Araneae: Pholcidae), were conducted to determine the action patterns displayed by males and females during courtship, mating and oviposition, and to identify the elements of courtship associated with subsequent acceptance by the female. When placed on a female’s web, a male usually went through a courtship sequence including whirling, swaying of his abdomen and plucking the web with his first pair of walking legs. The pedipalp movements (PPMs) involved...

Laboratory studies of the cellar spider, Pholcus beijingensis(Araneae: Pholcidae), were conducted to determine the action patterns displayed by males and females during courtship, mating and oviposition, and to identify the elements of courtship associated with subsequent acceptance by the female. When placed on a female’s web, a male usually went through a courtship sequence including whirling, swaying of his abdomen and plucking the web with his first pair of walking legs. The pedipalp movements (PPMs) involved in the entire duration of copulation. Pulsating movements of the abdomen extruded the eggs. They were gathered together by the third working legs, surrounded with a few strands of web, and transferred to the chelicerae. Eggs were clear or opaque off-white in color when laid but become brown or black as development proceeded.

室内用数码摄像机记录北京幽灵蛛 (Pholcusbeijingensis)的求偶、交配、产卵和孵卵行为 ,并分析了行为动作系列。拨丝和慢跳在求偶中起着重要的作用。北京幽灵蛛有多次交配的习性 ,雌蛛第一次交配的持续时间显著长于第二次交配 ,PPMs动作 (pedipalpmovements)在交配阶段贯穿始终 ,铲状的引导器在PPMs动作里会移出雌蛛生殖腔内的竞争者的精液和雌蛛分泌物 ,反映的是最后一个交配雄蛛的精子优先模式。雌蛛有护卵行为 ,产卵后用螯肢咬住卵袋直至其孵化。

 
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