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黄化幼苗     
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  etiolated seedling
     4 Inhibition ratio of S3307 (0.04 mg/L) on the length of coleoptile from Hyz etiolated seedling was 13.54%, while the inhibition effects on that of Bl-24 etiolated seedling were not obvious.
     4 S3307(0.04mg/L)对Hyz黄化幼苗胚芽鞘的抑制率为13.54%,对B1-24胚芽鞘长度无明显的影响;
短句来源
     (Hyz). 5 Endogenous GA4 contents of B1-24 bud, mesocotyl and coleoptile in etiolated seedling were less than that of Hyz.
     5 B1-24刚萌发幼芽和黄化幼苗中胚轴及胚芽鞘的内源GA_4含量均低于Hyz。
短句来源
     The main conclusions are as follows:1. Taking etiolated seedling of P. radiatus as experimental material, we treated the etiolated seedling using monochromatic light of different wavelengths (472nm, 628nm and 655nm), white light and antibiotics. In the condition of continuous illumination and flash light (750ms), we measured the photoreduction of Pchlide and the changes of Chi content in the course of leaf development of seedling.
     1.以绿豆黄化幼苗叶片为材料,利用不同光质的单色光(472nm、628nm和655nm)、WL以及抗生素等手段,对绿豆黄化幼苗进行处理,观测幼苗叶片发育过程中Pchlide光还原和Chl含量变化。
短句来源
     High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and HPLC-mass ~spectrometry (MS) were applied to qualitative and quantitative analysis of DIMBOA in seedling of four ~staple maize cultivars in China, including Nongda-80, Nongda-108, Nongda-115, and Nongda-368. ~DIMBOA was detected in 7-day old normal seedling and etiolated seedling of each maize cultivar.
     采用HPLC和HPLCMS方法对我国主栽的农大80、农大108、农大115和农大368等4个玉米品种幼苗中的丁布进行了定性和定量研究。 结果证实,供试的4个玉米品种培育7d的正常幼苗和黄化幼苗中均含有丁布;
短句来源
     This study suggested that the aerial part of the etiolated seedling of Nongda-368 was superior material for further extraction of ~DIMBOA .
     综合分析认为,供试的4个玉米品种中农大368的黄化幼苗地上部器官是提取丁布的优选材料。
短句来源
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  etiolated seedlings
     Treated with S3307, the root length of B1-24 and Hyz etiolated seedlings decrease by 16. 94 % and 54. 18 % , respectively.
     S3307使B1-24和Hyz黄化幼苗根长分别缩短16.94%和54.18%。
短句来源
     While the Chl content of etiolated seedlings grown in culture solution with 3% and 6% glucose increased 2.5 and 4.0 folds, respectively, those with 3% and 6% glucose and 1 mmol/L ALA increased 22 and 24 folds, respectively.
     在黑暗中以 3%和 6 %的葡萄糖处理水稻黄化幼苗 2d ,其叶绿素含量分别增加 2 5和 4 0倍 ; 若同时辅以 1mmol/Lδ 氨基酮戊酸 ,其叶绿素含量分别增加 2 2和 2 4倍。
短句来源
     6 Cell shape of the transverse sections of mesocotyl from B1-24 etiolated seedlings has changed, but not in size.
     6 B1-24黄化幼苗中胚轴横切面细胞形状发生改变,大小无差异;
短句来源
     Etiolated seedlings of black rice were treated with concentrations of GA and ABA.
     研究了不同浓度的GA和ABA对三种黑稻黄化幼苗中胚轴伸长生长的影响。
短句来源
     Irradiation for 2-6 h with BL promoted the uptake of NO - 3, the induction of nitrate reductase (NR), and the increase of the NO - 3 content in the etiolated seedlings.
     结果表明 :蓝光促进水稻黄化幼苗吸收NO-3 ,增加体内NO-3 含量 ,并促进NR(硝酸还原酶 )的诱导。
短句来源
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  “黄化幼苗”译为未确定词的双语例句
     Effects of 2, 4-D and GA_3 on Phosphoinositide Metabolism in Dark-Grown Phaseolus radiatus Seedlings
     2,4-D和GA_3对绿豆黄化幼苗肌醇磷脂代谢的影响
短句来源
     At 30℃, pH 8.0, the Michaelis-Mentent equation to the reaction of ACC synthase extracted from etiolated hypocotyls of soybean catalyzing SAM was: y=972.47x+2.19×10~6. The Michaelis constant Km was 443.3μmol·L~(-1).
     在反应温度为30℃,pH值为8.0的条件下,伤害处理的大豆黄化幼苗下胚轴部分提取的ACC合酶对底物SAM催化反应的米氏方程为:y=972.47x+2.19×10~6,米氏常数Km为443.3μ mol·L~(-1)。
短句来源
     The activity of ACC synthase(ACS, EC 4.4.1.14) from etiolated mungbean seedlings was elevatedobviously in treatment for 20 min with 0.5, 5 or 50 mmol/L of sodium dithionite (Na2S2O4) which is generally used as an exogenous generator of superoxide radical (O2-· ).
     以0.5、5和50mmol/L的连二亚硫酸钠(Na2S2O4)为外源超氧阴离子自由基(O2ˉ·nim 02理处,源)能明显提高绿豆黄化幼苗ACC合酶(ACC synthase, ACS, EC 4.4.1.14)的活性。
短句来源
     However, when the concentration of Ca 2+ was increased from 3.8 mmol/L to 10 mmol/L, the phenotype of "triple response", ethylene production, NR gene expression, and the CaM content didn't increase further, but decreased consequently.
     当Ca2 + 浓度由 3.8mmol/L进一步增加到 10mmol/L时 ,番茄黄化幼苗“三重反应”表型受到抑制 ,内源乙烯释放量、NR基因的表达量及胞内CaM的含量都有所下降。
短句来源
     (2-C~(14))-acetate was fed to etiolated rice seedlings and the respiratory path- ways of the acetate in them were studied.
     以[2-C~(14)]-乙酸饲喂水稻黄化幼苗,研究了乙酸在体内的呼吸途径。
短句来源
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  etiolated seedling
Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was conducted on etiolated seedling proteins from two distinct amphiploids (ABD1, ABD2) and their parental lines (AB1, D1 and AB2, D2), AB1 and AB2 being used as female.
      
LeERF1 positively modulated ethylene triple response on etiolated seedling, plant development and fruit ripening and softening i
      
To study the function of LeERF1 in ethylene triple response on etiolated seedling, plant development and fruit ripening and softening, LeERF1 gene was introduced into tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum cv.
      
Overexpression of LeERF1 in tomato caused the typical ethylene triple response on etiolated seedling.
      
The survey did not elucidate the nature of the first biochemical response after an exposure of an etiolated seedling to radiant energy, but it suggests several areas of further investigation.
      
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  etiolated plants
As distinct from sucrose synthase, invertase activity was the highest in the stem, especially in etiolated plants.
      
ABA manifested a short-term stimulating effect on PLD activity in the green seedlings and inhibited phospholipase activity in the etiolated plants.
      
GA did not markedly affect PLD activity in the etiolated plants and activated this enzyme in the green seedlings.
      
Etiolated plants incorporated [4-14C] cholesterol into steryl derivatives (esters, glycosides and acylated glycosides) and also into all of the 4 saponins.
      
Actinomycin-D inhibits phytochrome-mediated responses of etiolated plants.
      
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  dark-grown seedling
Apparently the increased geotropic reactivity of the irradiated seedlings is only one manifestation of the basic metabolic changes which occur in the dark-grown seedling after the absorption of light and which finally lead to photomorphogenesis.
      
Actinomycin D (10 μg/ml) cancels completely the phytochrome-mediated RNA net synthesis in the cotyledons of the mustard seedling whereas RNA net synthesis in the cotyledons of the dark-grown seedling is only partially inhibited (Fig.
      
far-red)-grown seedling as well as in the dark-grown seedling down to the same level (Fig.
      
Enhanced expression and differential inducibility of soybean chalcone synthase genes by supplemental UV-B in dark-grown seedling
      
Hierarchical clustering display of expression ratios from lightversus dark-grown seedling organs for three representative gene families.
      
  其他


(1)When etiolated wheat seedlings were illuminated, chlorophyll appeared immediately, but no photophosphorylation activity could be found. After about 3 hrs. of greening, photophosphorylation activity began to appear and its rate, calculated on chlorophyll basis, increased up to 7—8 hrs., after which it became more or less constant, while the chlorophyll content of the chloroplasts continued to rise.(2)The capacity of ATP formation(per nag. chlorophyll)by cyclic photophosphorylation was much higher than that...

(1)When etiolated wheat seedlings were illuminated, chlorophyll appeared immediately, but no photophosphorylation activity could be found. After about 3 hrs. of greening, photophosphorylation activity began to appear and its rate, calculated on chlorophyll basis, increased up to 7—8 hrs., after which it became more or less constant, while the chlorophyll content of the chloroplasts continued to rise.(2)The capacity of ATP formation(per nag. chlorophyll)by cyclic photophosphorylation was much higher than that by noncyclic photophosphorylation at the early stages of greening, but their difference became smaller as the greening goes on.When the capacity of ATP formation by cyclic photophosphorylation was compared with the O_2 evolving power by noncyclic photophosphorylation, no such difference in ratio during greening was observed. This fact indicates, that the low capacity of noncyclic photophosphorylation is mainly due to its lower degree of coupling, and not to the involvement of a O_2 evolving step which might develop slower. The development of the ATP formation capacity of the oxidative photophosphorylation with DCPIPH_2 as hydrogen donor during greening behaved similarly to that of noncyclic photophosphorylation, and also lagged behind that of cyclic photophosphorylation. This fact further confirms the conclusion that the cause of delayed development of ATP formation capacity by noncyclic photophosphorylation is not connected with the O_2 evolving step.(3)The light intensity required to saturate the photophosphorylation and Hillreaction activities of the greening wheat-seedling chloroplasts was found to be similar to that of fully green control. At the beginning of the development of the photophosphorylation capacity, it had a strong"light intensity effect", i.e. the slowing down of the rate of electron transport at low light intensity resulted in an uncoupling of the phosphorylating mechanism. This phenomenon may have some relation to the extraordinarily low capacity of ATP formation of noncyclic photophosphorylation at the early stage of greening.(4)During greening of etiolated wheat seedlings, the appearance of CO_2 assimilation was approximately simultaneous to that of the photophosphorylation capacity, but the activity calculated on chlorophyll basis, seemed to reach a maximum much earlier.

(1)黄化小麦幼苗初变绿时,光合磷酸化活力之发生远较叶绿素的生成为迟。在实验条件下,照光变绿3小时后,才可测得光合磷酸化活力,且其按叶绿素为基础计算的活力随照光变绿时间的增加而增加,至照光变绿7—8小时后,叶绿体上叶绿素含量尚在继续增加,但光合磷酸化活力则趋向恒定。(2)在黄化幼苗变绿初期,测得的循环光合磷酸化ATP形成能力较非循环光合磷酸化ATP形成能力高得多,以后较接近;但将循环光合磷酸化之ATP形成能力与非循环光合磷酸化之放氧能力相比较,则其比例在不同时期相差不大。这说明,在变绿初期非循环光合磷酸化之ATP形成能力特别小的原因,主要是由于当时它的偶联程度特别低,并不是因为它较循环光合磷酸化多牵涉到放氧等步骤,而这些步骤可能发生得较晚所致。以DCPIPH_2作氢供体的氧化光合磷酸化活力的最初增长情况与以Fe(CN)_6~≡作氢受体的非循环光合磷酸化ATP形成能力的增长情况一样,均比以PMS促进的循环光合磷酸化活力增长时间为晚,这结果也有助于证明非循环光合磷酸化ATP形成能力增长较晚的原因与它牵涉到放氧步骤无关。(3)使黄化变绿幼苗光合磷酸化、希尔反应活力达到饱和所需的光强度与绿苗所需的相仿。变...

(1)黄化小麦幼苗初变绿时,光合磷酸化活力之发生远较叶绿素的生成为迟。在实验条件下,照光变绿3小时后,才可测得光合磷酸化活力,且其按叶绿素为基础计算的活力随照光变绿时间的增加而增加,至照光变绿7—8小时后,叶绿体上叶绿素含量尚在继续增加,但光合磷酸化活力则趋向恒定。(2)在黄化幼苗变绿初期,测得的循环光合磷酸化ATP形成能力较非循环光合磷酸化ATP形成能力高得多,以后较接近;但将循环光合磷酸化之ATP形成能力与非循环光合磷酸化之放氧能力相比较,则其比例在不同时期相差不大。这说明,在变绿初期非循环光合磷酸化之ATP形成能力特别小的原因,主要是由于当时它的偶联程度特别低,并不是因为它较循环光合磷酸化多牵涉到放氧等步骤,而这些步骤可能发生得较晚所致。以DCPIPH_2作氢供体的氧化光合磷酸化活力的最初增长情况与以Fe(CN)_6~≡作氢受体的非循环光合磷酸化ATP形成能力的增长情况一样,均比以PMS促进的循环光合磷酸化活力增长时间为晚,这结果也有助于证明非循环光合磷酸化ATP形成能力增长较晚的原因与它牵涉到放氧步骤无关。(3)使黄化变绿幼苗光合磷酸化、希尔反应活力达到饱和所需的光强度与绿苗所需的相仿。变绿初期的叶绿体,其光合磷酸化作用有很强的“光强效应”,卽弱光下电子传递速度慢、PSP活力低时,与磷酸化的偶联程度会急剧下降。这现象可能是造成变绿初期测得的非循环光合磷酸化ATP形成能力特别低的原因。(4)黄化幼苗变绿时,同化CO_2能力之发生时间与光合磷酸化活力之发生时间差别不大,但以叶绿素为基础计算,前者的活力较早达到恒定。

The pathways of pyruvate oxidation in subcellular particles (mitochondria) prepared from shoots of 4-day old etiolated rice seedlings were studied.The operation of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) pathway was established by the following results: 1.Succinate and α-ketoglutarate were oxidised rapidly by the particles followed by citrate,malate and fumarate in decreasing order of rapidity. 2.Pyruvate oxidation was accelerated by catalytic amount of succinate.The opera- tion of condensing enzyme is thus indicated....

The pathways of pyruvate oxidation in subcellular particles (mitochondria) prepared from shoots of 4-day old etiolated rice seedlings were studied.The operation of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) pathway was established by the following results: 1.Succinate and α-ketoglutarate were oxidised rapidly by the particles followed by citrate,malate and fumarate in decreasing order of rapidity. 2.Pyruvate oxidation was accelerated by catalytic amount of succinate.The opera- tion of condensing enzyme is thus indicated. 3.Succinate oxidation was inhibited by malonate,α-Ketoglutarate oxidation was inhibited by arsenite.The latter inhibition was reversed by addition of succinate. 4.When reaction mixtures were examined for products on paper chromatograms, succinate was found to be converted to fumarate,maLate and isocitrate,α-Ketoglutarate was found to be converted to succinate,fumarate and malate. The presence of glyoxylate pathway along with the TCA route of pyruvate oxida- tion in these rice seedling particulate preparations is indicated by results obtained when homogenates and supernatant fractions were assayed for isocitratase and malate syn- thetase.

本文报导了关于4天水稻黄化幼苗地上部的亚细胞颗粒氧化丙酮酸的途径的研究。下述结果证明在其中有三羧酸循环运行:1.琥珀酸、α-酮基戊二酸能迅速地被氧化,柠檬酸、苹果酸、延胡索酸以顺序降低的速率为此颗粒制剂氧化。2.丙酮酸的氧化能为催化量的琥珀酸所引发,说明有缩合酶的活性存在。3.琥珀酸的氧化能为丙二酸所抑制。α-酮基戊二酸的氧化能为亚砷酸钠所抑制,并且此被抑制的耗氧可借加入琥珀酸而得到恢复。4.氧化产物的纸上层析鉴定表明:琥珀酸能转化为延胡索酸、苹果酸和异柠檬酸;α-酮基戊二酸能转化为琥珀酸、延胡索酸和苹果酸。对亚细胞制剂及组织匀浆所作异柠檬酸酶及苹果酸合成酶的活性鉴定指出,在水稻幼苗氧化丙酮酸的途径中,乙醛酸循环可能与三羧酸循环同时存在。

(2-C~(14))-acetate was fed to etiolated rice seedlings and the respiratory path- ways of the acetate in them were studied.The following results were obtained from feeding experiments: 1.5-day old etiolated rice seedlings were extracted with 80% alcohol.The extract was passed through the anion exchange resin Amberlite IRA-400 and the eluant was col- lected for chromatography on Sin Hua no.1 filter paper.The paper chromatogram showed that citric,isocitric,α-ketoglutaric,succinic,fumaric and malic acids were present...

(2-C~(14))-acetate was fed to etiolated rice seedlings and the respiratory path- ways of the acetate in them were studied.The following results were obtained from feeding experiments: 1.5-day old etiolated rice seedlings were extracted with 80% alcohol.The extract was passed through the anion exchange resin Amberlite IRA-400 and the eluant was col- lected for chromatography on Sin Hua no.1 filter paper.The paper chromatogram showed that citric,isocitric,α-ketoglutaric,succinic,fumaric and malic acids were present in the rice tissues.It demonstrates that the intermediates of the tricarboxylic acid cycle exist in the intact rice seedling. 2.The rice seedlings were fed with (2-C~(14))-acetate,incubated in various time in- tervals from 2 to 40 or 60 minutes and then extracted with 80% hot alcohol.The extracts were passed through cation exchange resin Zerolite 225 and anion exchange resin Amberlite IRA-400 to separate them into organic acids, amino acids and sugars. The estimation of the three kinds of compounds indicates that radio activity appeared first in the organic acids,followed by amino acids and rarely appeared in the sugars. 3.The above organic acids were fractionated with ion exchange chromatography of Zerolite FF.The fractions were collected and concentrated for radioactivity determina- tion.The results showed that citric,isocitric,succinic,fumaric and malic acids are labelled with C~(14).When malonate was added to the substrate solution,the incorporation of acetate into the organic acids was reduced to below 50%,while the radioactivity of the labelled succinate increased correspondingly.The radiochromatogram indicates the ac- cumulation of succinate in the rice seedlings fed with labelled acetate and malonate. 4.The radioactivities of the organic acids isolated from the rice seedlings showed that succinate appeared in the initial 2 minutes in quite measurable quantity,and ma- late and citrate increased in amount until 10 minutes later.Radiochromatogram con- firmed this result. 5.When arsenite and α,α′-dipyridyl were added to the media,the incorporation of acetate into organic acid was inhibited to 68% and 44% respectively,but the amount in- corporated into succinate was depressed 46% and 29% respectively.It means that some labelled succinate accumulates even as the inhibitors are operative. 6.The radiochromatogram of the amino acids extracted from the seedlings fed with (2-C~(14))-acetate shows that the radioactivities of aspartate and glutamate approach 17% and 20% of the total radioactivity of amino acids respectively.If malonate was added, the incorporation of C~(14) into amino acids was reduced to 50%.It means that the labelled acetate incorporates into those amino acids which are assiociated with the tricarboxylic acid cycle. 7.The following conclusion may be drawn from the above experimental results. Tricarboxylic acid cycle is present in the intact rice seedlings.From the facts that large amounts of succinate was labelled during the first moment of feedings and that some amount of succinate was still accumulated even after inhibition by arsenite and α,α′- dipyridyl,it is suggested that besides the tricarboxylic acid cycle as the main route for the utilization of acetate,it is probable that glyoxylate cycle and dicarboxylic acid cycle may be operative in these rice seedlings.

以[2-C~(14)]-乙酸饲喂水稻黄化幼苗,研究了乙酸在体内的呼吸途径。从饲喂试验获得了以下结果:1.以80%酒精提取萌发5天的水稻幼苗,将提取液通过阴离子交换树脂 AmberliteIRA-400,收集洗脱液进行纸上层析。从层析谱上得到异柠檬酸、柠檬酸、α-酮戊二酸、琥珀酸、延胡索酸及苹果酸。结果表明在水稻幼苗中存在着三羧酸循环的中间成分。2.以[2-C~(14)]乙酸饲喂水稻幼苗,经过不同时间2至40或60分钟保温,立即以80%热酒精提取。提取液通过阳离子交换树脂 Zerolite 225及阴离子交换树脂 AmberliteIRA-400,以分离出有机酸、氨基酸及糖三类化合物。这三类化合物放射性强度的测量结果表明,放射性最初只在有机酸中出现,随后为氨基酸,而糖类几乎始终不出现放射性。3.从饲喂乙酸的水稻幼苗提取液中分离出的有机酸,用阴离子交换树脂 Zerolite FF进行柱层析,分部收集各种有机酸,浓缩并测量其放射性强度。结果表明柠檬酸、异柠檬酸、琥珀酸、延胡索酸及苹果酸均被 C~(14)标记上。当饲喂乙酸时,同时加入丙二酸,则乙酸渗入到有机酸的总量降至50%以下,而标记琥珀酸的放射性强度...

以[2-C~(14)]-乙酸饲喂水稻黄化幼苗,研究了乙酸在体内的呼吸途径。从饲喂试验获得了以下结果:1.以80%酒精提取萌发5天的水稻幼苗,将提取液通过阴离子交换树脂 AmberliteIRA-400,收集洗脱液进行纸上层析。从层析谱上得到异柠檬酸、柠檬酸、α-酮戊二酸、琥珀酸、延胡索酸及苹果酸。结果表明在水稻幼苗中存在着三羧酸循环的中间成分。2.以[2-C~(14)]乙酸饲喂水稻幼苗,经过不同时间2至40或60分钟保温,立即以80%热酒精提取。提取液通过阳离子交换树脂 Zerolite 225及阴离子交换树脂 AmberliteIRA-400,以分离出有机酸、氨基酸及糖三类化合物。这三类化合物放射性强度的测量结果表明,放射性最初只在有机酸中出现,随后为氨基酸,而糖类几乎始终不出现放射性。3.从饲喂乙酸的水稻幼苗提取液中分离出的有机酸,用阴离子交换树脂 Zerolite FF进行柱层析,分部收集各种有机酸,浓缩并测量其放射性强度。结果表明柠檬酸、异柠檬酸、琥珀酸、延胡索酸及苹果酸均被 C~(14)标记上。当饲喂乙酸时,同时加入丙二酸,则乙酸渗入到有机酸的总量降至50%以下,而标记琥珀酸的放射性强度却相对增加,纸层析谱的放射自显影也证明有琥珀酸的积累。4.从不同时间饲喂乙酸所分离出的有机酸,其放射性强度测量结果表明,2分钟标记琥珀酸出现最多,至10分钟后,苹果酸和柠檬酸同时随之增加,纸层析谱的放射自显影也证实了这点。5.当饲喂乙酸时,同时加入亚砷酸钠或α,α′-联呲啶,则乙酸的利用受到不同程度的抑制,分别为68%及44%,而 C~(14)渗入琥珀酸的量只分别受到46%及29%的抑制,即施用抑制剂后仍有相当数量标记琥珀酸的积累。6.氨基酸的纸层析及放射性强度结果表明,天门冬氨酸及谷氨酸的放射性分别占氨基酸总放射性的17%和20%。饲喂乙酸时加入丙二酸,C~(14)渗入氨基酸下降50%以上,由此亦可见乙酸最早渗入到与三羧酸循环有直接联系的氨基酸中。7.从上述实验结果可以得出结论,在水稻整体幼苗中存在着三羧酸循环。同时根据短时间饲喂乙酸首先出现大量标记琥珀酸以及亚砷酸钠和α,α′联呲啶抑制后仍有较大量琥珀酸积累的事实,可以认为乙酸的利用除了主要通过三羧酸循环以外,还可能通过乙醛酸循环及二羧酸循环等途径。

 
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