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句法的复杂性
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  “句法的复杂性”译为未确定词的双语例句
     Since the morphosyntactic complexity and psychological complexity make greater demand on the working memory capacity, the processing problems that the learner has to confront in the acquisition of nominalization should be taken into consideration.
     由于名物化的形态句法的复杂性和心理复杂性对工作记忆容量提出了更高的要求,在考察学习者学习名物化时应考虑工作记忆的处理问题。
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     on the micro-textual level, based on Basil Hatim’s evaluativeness concept, evaluative devices, including the use of address and personal reference, the complexity of syntax and the modality, are compared.
     在微观层面,根据Basil Hatim提出的评价性概念,对比了包括称呼及人称指示词,句法的复杂性以及情态等在内的评价性手段在这一体裁中的使用。
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  相似匹配句对
     Complexity and post-modernism(Part Ⅰ)
     复杂性和后现代主义(上)
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     From Simplicity to Complexity
     从简单性到复杂性
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     NEW METHODS IN SPACE SYNTAX
     空间句法的新方法
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  syntactic complexity
Syntactic complexity of scattered context grammars
      
The syntactic complexity of scattered context grammars with respect to the number of nonterminals is investigated.
      
Expression of syntactic complexity in sentence comprehension: A comparison between dyslexic and regular readers
      
The present study was designed to investigate the influence of syntactic complexity on sentence comprehension in Hebrew.
      
Each task consisted of sentences composed of five syntactic constructions varying in the level of syntactic complexity (active, passive, conjoined, object-subject relative, and subject-object relative).
      
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This paper reports on an empirical research into L2 oral fluency development in the FL classroom setting as revealed from 12 subjects?two oral productions at an interval of twenty-eight weeks. The research question for the empirical study is, what kind of development do L2 learners demonstrate in their oral fluency after an academic year抯 learning at university level? For the purpose of the present study, L2 oral fluency is defined as the ability to speak an acceptable variety of a second language (English...

This paper reports on an empirical research into L2 oral fluency development in the FL classroom setting as revealed from 12 subjects?two oral productions at an interval of twenty-eight weeks. The research question for the empirical study is, what kind of development do L2 learners demonstrate in their oral fluency after an academic year抯 learning at university level? For the purpose of the present study, L2 oral fluency is defined as the ability to speak an acceptable variety of a second language (English in this case) with smooth continuity and coherence of content that are also felt by the listener. In order to answer the research question, this research adopted the pretest-posttest design. The subjects chosen for the present study were 12 first-year English majors, 3 males and 9 females, aged between 17 and 19. They all speak Chinese as their first language, had followed 6 years?secondary school curriculum including English as an academic subject before the present study started. Four categories of fluency indices, i.e., temporal indices, content indices, linguistic indices and performing indices, were adopted to measure the subjects?oral fluency level and its development. Accordingly, a series of paired-sample t-tests were applied to see whether there were differences in means of the 12 fluency indices, that is, to test the differences between the subjects?performance in the pretest and the post-test. Two-tailed tests were applied for the theoretical mean of differences and the critical values of t were: |2.201| at 0.05 level and |3.106| at 0.01 level. The quantitative results of the four categories of fluency indices provided a general pattern of the subjects?oral English fluency development. Development in the subjects?oral fluency on eight out of the twelve fluency indices is the most salient characteristics from the quantitative results, suggesting that after one year抯 English learning, the subjects developed their oral English fluency to a greater or lesser degree. Apart from a general development in their oral fluency, the subjects also showed individual differences which were represented by the increase in standard deviations for some indices (e.g., SR and MLR), as well as by the decrease in standard deviations for some others (e.g., PTR, ALP, AR, RRR, and REFT). The fact that the subjects showed smaller variation on seven out of the twelve indices indicated that as the subjects?exposure to and practice of English increased, they demonstrated clearer central tendency. For any one of the subjects, greater or lesser increase on certain indices and decrease on other indices indicated that the subject followed his/her own route of development in their oral English fluency. It is concluded that the development of the subjects?L2 oral fluency is a demonstration of the development of their on-line processing ability. However, the subjects?improvement in the smoothness of delivery, coherence of content and complexity of syntactic structures was achieved at the expense of their linguistic accuracy. To compensate for this deficiency, the subjects had to rely on the monitoring system or use other production strategies such as repetition to solve the problems.

本研究为第二语言口语流利性发展的实证性定量研究,首先确定了口语流利性的测定指标,然后从定量的角度对第二语言口语流利性的发展进行了描述。定量分析包括流畅性,产出内容,语言形式和口头表达四个方面,共使用了十二项指标。从两次测试的统计分析结果来看,调查对象经过一段时间的英语基础训练后,其口语在表达流畅性、内容连贯性、句法复杂性和用词多样性上有明显进步,但其语言正确性并没有多大进步。同时,学习者在口语流利性的发展趋势上呈现出个体差异。

Introduction Substantial evidence has suggested that the processes of speech plan of people who stutter (PWS) may be impaired. Recently, discussions focused mainly on the exact process in which PWS have deficit. The difference of word length effect between PWS and people who do not stutter (PWNS) provided important support for the phonological encoding deficit hypothesis of stuttering. By reviewing the literatures on word length effect, three alternative explanations for this difference were put forward. First,...

Introduction Substantial evidence has suggested that the processes of speech plan of people who stutter (PWS) may be impaired. Recently, discussions focused mainly on the exact process in which PWS have deficit. The difference of word length effect between PWS and people who do not stutter (PWNS) provided important support for the phonological encoding deficit hypothesis of stuttering. By reviewing the literatures on word length effect, three alternative explanations for this difference were put forward. First, frequencies of short words are usually lower than those of long words. The word length effect difference between PWS and PWNS may be due to frequency effect. Second, stuttering may easily occur when phases or sentences are longer and more complex, but none of the two factors can singly account for stuttering. So, syntax may be another explanation for their difference. Third, in block design, pronunciation length would influence reaction strategies, and may also contribute to the difference. Thus, 3 picture naming experiments were used to test these hypotheses respectively. Method and Results In experiment 1, a 2×2×2 factorial design was set, with word length and word frequency as within subject factors. Ten PWS and ten PWNS participated in this experiment. The result indicated that stable differences of word length effect were obtained between PWS and PWNS, which were not influenced by word frequency. So, deficit of PWS may not exist in phoneme retrieval process. In experiment 2, A 2×2 factorial design was set, with word class (noun phase vs. verb phase) as within subject factors. In both conditions, names of pictures consisted of 3 Chinese characters. Ten PWS and ten PWNS participated in this experiment. The differences between two word class conditions were not significant in PWNS, but prominent in PWS. This result suggested PWS were sensitive to syntactical complexity after controlling the word length. In experiment 3, three conditions (1 character picture naming, 3 character picture naming and 1 character picture naming 3 times) were designed. The first two conditions were used to obtain the word length effect, and the third condition was used to control the length of pronunciation. Contrary to our prediction, the increase of pronouncing length did not prolong naming latency of PWS, and word length effect was still prominent after controlling pronouncing length. Conclusion The results showed that both the syntactical and phonological encoding processes may be impaired in PWS. And a slots-and-filler was applied to illustrate how these two processes contributed to the difference of word length effect between PWS and PWNS. Meanwhile, it was suggested that stuttering therapists should pay more attention on speech training with long and complex sentences.

口吃者与非口吃者在词长效应上的差异是口吃语音编码缺陷的一个重要的支持证据。本研究在综述词长效应研究的基础上,对这种解释提出了三点置疑,即词频、句法复杂性和发音长度也可能是造成词长效应差异的主要原因,并通过三个实验进行了验证。实验一和实验三在口吃者和非口吃者之间都得到了稳定的词长效应差异,并且排除了词频和发音长度对于这种差异的影响;实验二在控制词长的条件下,发现口吃者对于句法复杂性是敏感的。因此,本研究的结果支持口吃在言语产出中的语音编码和句法编码中都存在缺陷。同时,本研究对于口吃治疗也提供了有价值的参考建议。

 
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