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森林
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  forest
    Happening Law and Preventive Measures of Forest Fire in Lishui Area
    丽水地区森林火灾发生规律和预防措施
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    Notes of the New Forest Bests in Fujian Province and Discussion on the Cause of Their Occurence
    福建省森林新害虫记述及其发生原因探讨
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    RELATIONSHIP OF FOREST DISEASE EPIDEMIC TO MANAGEMENT MEASURES
    森林病害流行与经营措施的关系
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    RESEARCH OF FOREST ENTOMOLOGY AND ITS APPLICATION
    森林昆虫学的研究和应用
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    Ecology and Management of Forest Insects
    《森林昆虫的生态学与管理》
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  in forest
    The Study of the Grade or the Classification standard in Forest Fire Behavior
    森林火行为的分级或分类标准的研究
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    ROLE OF ANTS IN FOREST PEST MANAGEMENT
    蚂蚁在森林害虫管理中的作用
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    Advance in Forest Pest Management
    森林害虫治理进展
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    50 Years Advances in Forest Pathology in China
    中国森林病理学50年
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    Safety rules to be followed in forest fire fighting
    扑救森林火灾应遵守的安全规则
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  “森林”译为未确定词的双语例句
    A Mathematical Model for Estimating Surface Fire Behavior
    森林地表火行为估算的数学模型
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    THE PERTS POPULATION AND SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT OF FOREST-PESTS OF DA KHINGGAN MOUNTAINS
    大兴安岭森林害虫特点及科学管理
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    APPLICATION OF REMOTE SENSING AND GIS INMONITORING AND MANAGEMENT OF FORESTDISEASE AND INSECT DAMAGE
    遥感和GIS在森林病虫害监测管理中的应用模式
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    Using V/U Bifrequency Repeater to Solve Jam Problem of Radio Channel of Incident Command System
    用V/U跨段方式解决寻呼台对林区森林防火通信系统的干扰
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    Pest risk analysis of Hemiberlesia pitysophila Takagi
    森林有害生物松突圆蚧的危险性分析
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  forest
Moreover, a backward reasoning forest of a reachable marking was generated for explicitly representing reachable paths in RBS.
      
Growth Model System for National Continuous Forest Inventory
      
A Growth Model System is developed for data updating and forecasting of the national continuous forest inventory.
      
Its design is based on the inherent forest growth laws, and its parameters are estimated by modern regression methods.
      
It is suitable for forest resource information updating and forecasting for a large region, e.g., a province.
      
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  in forest
Nitrate has been recognized as the dominant mineral nitrogen form in most agricultural soils and the main nitrogen source for crops, but it is not usually the case in forest ecosystems.
      
Fine root lifespan and turnover play an important role in carbon allocation and nutrient cycling in forest ecosystems.
      
Soil properties in forest gaps and under canopy in broad-leaved Pinus koraiensis forests in Changbai Mountainous Region, China
      
Results showed that compared with farmland watersheds, runoff generation time in forest watersheds was delayed remarkably, and peak flow was reduced greatly, which indicates that vegetation played an important role in holding and absorbing rainfall.
      
The two forests differ in forest humus layer; it is deep in the Ailao forest while little is present in the Xishuangbanna forest.
      
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Haprust, caused by Thekopsora areolata (Fr.) Magn., is a serious disease of spruce, Picea asparata Mast. and P. purpurea Mast. in Sun Chuen Basin of Szechuen province. The percentages of infected trees have been found about 64.5 for P. asperata and 30.7 It seems, Environmental conditions influence profoundly on the epidermiclogy of this disease. In general, spruce plantation in the sand banks are heavily infested; trees at within 3210—3400 meters above sea level are seriously damaged; and solitary trees as well...

Haprust, caused by Thekopsora areolata (Fr.) Magn., is a serious disease of spruce, Picea asparata Mast. and P. purpurea Mast. in Sun Chuen Basin of Szechuen province. The percentages of infected trees have been found about 64.5 for P. asperata and 30.7 It seems, Environmental conditions influence profoundly on the epidermiclogy of this disease. In general, spruce plantation in the sand banks are heavily infested; trees at within 3210—3400 meters above sea level are seriously damaged; and solitary trees as well as the trees alone the edge of the forest are more liable subjected to the attached of the rust. Picea purpurea is mote resistant to Haprust than P. asperata. It has been suggested that the presence of abundant resin on the cone of P. purpurea may be attributed for this disease resistance. The damages produced by Haprust on spruce are: (1) delaying the time of reforestation; (2) weakening the spruce seedlings and (3) lowering the quality of the seed as well as the percentage of seed germination, a tentative schedule of control measures has been proposed.

1.云杉球果銹病(Thekopsora aerolata Fr.Magn.)为云杉林木球果重要病害。在四川小金川流域普遍为害着。为害云杉属之粗云杉(P.asperata)和紫果云杉(P.purpurea)。云杉林分感染率粗云杉为64.5%,紫果云杉为30.7%。在云杉立木上球果感染率,粗云杉占27.1%,紫果云杉占7.4%。2.云杉球果銹病特征是在鱗片上出現許多銹孢子器,鳞片外张,故病果在长度和寬度上均較健果为大。严重感病的球果以正面鳞片上銹孢子器为多,其他等級的球果,却以反面鳞片上銹孢子器为多。3.云杉球果銹病出現前存在潛隐阶段,粗云杉在8月中旬、紫果云杉在8月下旬病果已有出現,直至9月下旬达到最高峯。4.在各云杉林地类型中,以河滩——云杉林发病率最高。云杉立木类別中,以林綠木、孤立木球果锈病最多。在山之中部,海拔3,210—3,400米內,球果感染率最大。同时,西坡和西南坡中感病严重。5.云杉林木发育級中,Ⅲ級木球果銹病最多,Ⅱ級木次之,Ⅰ級木更次之。发病率与年龄关系,表現在Ⅸ龄級(粗云杉)和Ⅹ龄級,Ⅶ龄級(紫果云杉)达到最高峯。6.立木树冠方向上,紫果云杉球果感染率次序为西—南—东—北。在树冠上部較中部...

1.云杉球果銹病(Thekopsora aerolata Fr.Magn.)为云杉林木球果重要病害。在四川小金川流域普遍为害着。为害云杉属之粗云杉(P.asperata)和紫果云杉(P.purpurea)。云杉林分感染率粗云杉为64.5%,紫果云杉为30.7%。在云杉立木上球果感染率,粗云杉占27.1%,紫果云杉占7.4%。2.云杉球果銹病特征是在鱗片上出現許多銹孢子器,鳞片外张,故病果在长度和寬度上均較健果为大。严重感病的球果以正面鳞片上銹孢子器为多,其他等級的球果,却以反面鳞片上銹孢子器为多。3.云杉球果銹病出現前存在潛隐阶段,粗云杉在8月中旬、紫果云杉在8月下旬病果已有出現,直至9月下旬达到最高峯。4.在各云杉林地类型中,以河滩——云杉林发病率最高。云杉立木类別中,以林綠木、孤立木球果锈病最多。在山之中部,海拔3,210—3,400米內,球果感染率最大。同时,西坡和西南坡中感病严重。5.云杉林木发育級中,Ⅲ級木球果銹病最多,Ⅱ級木次之,Ⅰ級木更次之。发病率与年龄关系,表現在Ⅸ龄級(粗云杉)和Ⅹ龄級,Ⅶ龄級(紫果云杉)达到最高峯。6.立木树冠方向上,紫果云杉球果感染率次序为西—南—东—北。在树冠上部較中部和下部感病为多。7.粗云杉較紫果云杉抗病力为弱。8.云杉球果銹病为害性表現在以下几方面:(1) 影响云杉更新,(2) 影响云杉种子貭量:一感病球果提早枯裂,二病果种子发芽率降低,三种子产量減少,重量降低。9.初步防治意見:(1) 勿采病果,(2) 烧燬病果,(3) 改变森林环境条件,(4) 砍除稠李。10.存在問題:进一步探討轉株寄主对病害发生关系、病菌生活史以及发病規律性。

Recent works of many authors show that temperature has an important effect on themortality due to insecticides. But different effects have been reported in different cases.During 1959-1960, we had the occasion to carry out some experiments on the effect ofDDT, BHC and Dipterex applied to the hibernating larvae of the pine caterpillar, theresults of which may be summarized as follows: According to field observations, we may divide the larval hibernation into five suc-cessive periods during the winter: 1) Active...

Recent works of many authors show that temperature has an important effect on themortality due to insecticides. But different effects have been reported in different cases.During 1959-1960, we had the occasion to carry out some experiments on the effect ofDDT, BHC and Dipterex applied to the hibernating larvae of the pine caterpillar, theresults of which may be summarized as follows: According to field observations, we may divide the larval hibernation into five suc-cessive periods during the winter: 1) Active period before pre-hibernation; 2) Pre-hibernation period; 3) Hibernation period; 4) Post-hibernation period; and 5) Ac-tive period after post--hibernation. In the case of DDT, the finding in general is that there is a higher mortality at lowertemperature (between 10-20℃ mean daily temperature). But in the case of BHC andDipterex the mortality is increased at higher temperatures (when over 20℃). Theeffect is more evident in the latter case. The effects of insecticides are different at different periods of hibernating larvae. Incase of DDT the order is: Post-hibernation period > Pre-hibernation period > Hibernation period > Activeperiod before pre-hibernation > Active period after Post-hibernation ≥ Summer larvae(4-5th instars).

1959—1960年作者等在江西、湖南等地区配合大面积防治森林害虫之际,开展了DDT等化学药剂对于不同越冬时期的马尾松毛虫幼虫的毒效试验。据野外观察结果,将马尾松毛虫越冬幼虫划分为5个时期。即越冬前活动期、越冬前期、越冬期、越冬后期、越冬后活动期。试验证明:不同化学药剂对越冬松毛虫幼虫的毒效随着不同时期和温度条件而变化。就一般论:DDT的效果,在比较低温(日均温10—20℃)时特别显著;666及敌百虫的效果,在比较高温时(20℃以上)为显著。其中尤以敌百虫为更甚。DDT对不同时期幼虫的毒效大小为:越冬后期>越冬前期>越冬期>越冬前活动期>越冬后活动期≥夏季(4-5龄)幼虫;其中以越冬后期幼虫抵抗力最弱。从原则上论这是施药的最适宜时期,从25% DDT乳剂4,000倍稀释液在越冬后期(2,3月间)施用,毒效可达92%以上,用6,000倍稀释液亦达82%以上。如用γ6%可湿性666,800倍稀释液在越冬前、后期使用,毒效可达70-80%以上。50%敌百虫乳剂在温度20℃以上时(越冬前、后活动期)毒效显著增高。此时如用5,000-6,000倍稀释液喷洒,毒效可达70-80%左右。由此,作者认为:在长江以...

1959—1960年作者等在江西、湖南等地区配合大面积防治森林害虫之际,开展了DDT等化学药剂对于不同越冬时期的马尾松毛虫幼虫的毒效试验。据野外观察结果,将马尾松毛虫越冬幼虫划分为5个时期。即越冬前活动期、越冬前期、越冬期、越冬后期、越冬后活动期。试验证明:不同化学药剂对越冬松毛虫幼虫的毒效随着不同时期和温度条件而变化。就一般论:DDT的效果,在比较低温(日均温10—20℃)时特别显著;666及敌百虫的效果,在比较高温时(20℃以上)为显著。其中尤以敌百虫为更甚。DDT对不同时期幼虫的毒效大小为:越冬后期>越冬前期>越冬期>越冬前活动期>越冬后活动期≥夏季(4-5龄)幼虫;其中以越冬后期幼虫抵抗力最弱。从原则上论这是施药的最适宜时期,从25% DDT乳剂4,000倍稀释液在越冬后期(2,3月间)施用,毒效可达92%以上,用6,000倍稀释液亦达82%以上。如用γ6%可湿性666,800倍稀释液在越冬前、后期使用,毒效可达70-80%以上。50%敌百虫乳剂在温度20℃以上时(越冬前、后活动期)毒效显著增高。此时如用5,000-6,000倍稀释液喷洒,毒效可达70-80%左右。由此,作者认为:在长江以北,每年发生2代以下的松毛虫地区,可用DDT和666稀释液在越冬前、后期进行防治。长江以南,每年发生2代以上的马尾松毛虫地区,不但可用DDT、

Gravitarmata margarotana Hein. is an important forest insect pest of Shensi. It attacks four species of pine and especially prefers Pinus tabulaeformis which is sometimes severely injured.According to field observation, this insect has one generation a year in North Shensi with pupae hibernating in cocoons. The moths begin to appear in mid-April iind are most abundant in late April and early May. The larvae attack host plants from early May to early June, being most serious in the middle part of May. A number...

Gravitarmata margarotana Hein. is an important forest insect pest of Shensi. It attacks four species of pine and especially prefers Pinus tabulaeformis which is sometimes severely injured.According to field observation, this insect has one generation a year in North Shensi with pupae hibernating in cocoons. The moths begin to appear in mid-April iind are most abundant in late April and early May. The larvae attack host plants from early May to early June, being most serious in the middle part of May. A number of available insecticides were tested against the young larvae. Eesults showed that 25% DDT emulsion and 50% wettable DDT ( : 200-400) are more effective.

油松球果小卷蛾是松类的球果及嫩梢的重要害虫之一。该虫在陕西省乔山、黄龙、秦岭,巴山等林区均有分布,已知寄主植物有油松、马尾松、华山松及白皮松等。其中以油松受害最为严重,被害的当年生球果提早枯落而不能成熟;先年生球果多干缩枯死,无子粒:当年生嫩梢常枯枝秃顶,继而干形弯曲,不能长成通直良材,这样,既严重影响森林更新及造林用种,又严重威胁树木生长发育及木材利用价值。 该虫在陕西省乔山林区年只一代,以蛹越夏过冬。翌年4月中旬为蛾始发期,4月下旬至5月上旬达盛发期。蛾盛飞时刻在傍晚19时30分至20时30分。卵散产,主要产于先年生球果上,间或产于嫩梢及针叶上。卵期14天。幼虫始孵期在5月上旬,中旬达盛孵期,6月上、中旬幼虫始老熟,吐丝下地在枯枝落叶层及杂草丛下结茧化蛹,准备越夏过冬。 该虫发生在海拔1,900米以下的松林内,而在1,900米以上的高寒山地尚未见其踪迹。其发生为害规律是:低海拔重于高海拔,山下部重于山中、上部,纯林重于混交林,疏林重于密林,幼、中龄林重于近、成、过熟林,结实好林分重于结实不好及未结实林分。该虫的发生期是阳坡先于阴坡,低海拔先于高海拔,并与植物物候相关,如幼虫孵化始、盛期,正是油...

油松球果小卷蛾是松类的球果及嫩梢的重要害虫之一。该虫在陕西省乔山、黄龙、秦岭,巴山等林区均有分布,已知寄主植物有油松、马尾松、华山松及白皮松等。其中以油松受害最为严重,被害的当年生球果提早枯落而不能成熟;先年生球果多干缩枯死,无子粒:当年生嫩梢常枯枝秃顶,继而干形弯曲,不能长成通直良材,这样,既严重影响森林更新及造林用种,又严重威胁树木生长发育及木材利用价值。 该虫在陕西省乔山林区年只一代,以蛹越夏过冬。翌年4月中旬为蛾始发期,4月下旬至5月上旬达盛发期。蛾盛飞时刻在傍晚19时30分至20时30分。卵散产,主要产于先年生球果上,间或产于嫩梢及针叶上。卵期14天。幼虫始孵期在5月上旬,中旬达盛孵期,6月上、中旬幼虫始老熟,吐丝下地在枯枝落叶层及杂草丛下结茧化蛹,准备越夏过冬。 该虫发生在海拔1,900米以下的松林内,而在1,900米以上的高寒山地尚未见其踪迹。其发生为害规律是:低海拔重于高海拔,山下部重于山中、上部,纯林重于混交林,疏林重于密林,幼、中龄林重于近、成、过熟林,结实好林分重于结实不好及未结实林分。该虫的发生期是阳坡先于阴坡,低海拔先于高海拔,并与植物物候相关,如幼虫孵化始、盛期,正是油松开花始、盛期,也是进行化学防治的大好时机。 防治措施:营造混交林;改疏

 
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