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森林
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  forest
    Theory and Practice on Sustainable Developmental Management of Forest Environment
    森林环境可持续发展管理的理论与实践
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    Study on State-Owned Forest Resources Assets Operation
    国有森林资源资产运营研究
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    International Forest Certification Systems and Theoretical Studies and Policy Suggestions for China's Forest Certification
    国际森林认证体系与中国森林认证的理论和政策研究
短句来源
    A Study on Capital Management of Forest Ecological Compensation in China
    我国森林生态效益补偿资金管理的研究
短句来源
    Studies on Trend and Comprehensive Evaluation of Sustainable Development of Forest Resources in China
    中国森林资源未来发展趋势及可持续发展综合评价研究
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  forests
    New zealand's forests move into the market
    新西兰的森林走向市场
短句来源
    DEVELOPMENT TENDENCY OF THE WORLD FORESTS
    世界森林发展趋势
短句来源
    On Compensation Mechanism for Ecological Effects of Forests
    浅谈森林生态效益补偿机制
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    Positive analysis on residents' pay willingness to compensate for the ecological benefit of city forests
    居民对城市森林生态效益经济补偿支付意愿实证分析
短句来源
    Summary on Green GDP Accounting for Forests——Analysis of the Relevant Literature of 2002-2004
    2002~2004年基于森林的绿色GDP核算研究相关文献综述
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  forestry
    Dynamic Analysis of Forest Resources and Biodiversity Economic Value in Yingchun Forestry Bureau
    迎春林业局森林资源及生物多样性经济价值的动态分析
短句来源
    Research on Value Evaluation for the Assets of Forestry Biodiversity
    森林生物多样性资产价值评估研究
短句来源
    Establishing Forest Environmental Resource Industry to Promote the Sustainable Development of Forestry
    建立森林环境资源产业,促进林业持续发展
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    The Present Status of Forestry and Forest Industry in Russia
    俄罗斯林业与森林工业近况
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    The forestry of demonstration is a sustainable innovative practice of forest management.
    示范林业是森林可持续经营的创新实践。
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  “森林”译为未确定词的双语例句
    Criteria and Indicators of Sustainable Management in Canada
    浅析加拿大森林可持续管理标准和指标
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    Forestland Property and Management in USA and Canada
    美国、加拿大林地产权制度及森林经营管理
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    How to monitor and evaluate the progress on SFM and how to judge the SFM?
    如何来监测和评估森林可持续经营的进展以及如何来评判森林经营的可持续性?
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    The hierarchy structure of criteria and indicators at community level was developed which contains 41 indicators belonging to 11 criteria of 3 objectives.
    本研究制定的社区水平森林可持续经营的标准与指标包含3个目标,下分11个标准及41个指标。
短句来源
    The results of the measurement on 3 sites in 1994 and 2002 showed:Ecological sustainability: The score in Changhua was 5.65 and 5.65 in 1994and 2002 respectively,the score in Gaohong increases from 4.69 to 5.09,and that in Lin'mu increases from5.47 to 6.80。
    应用本研究制定的社区森林可持续经营标准与指标对3个地点在2个年度的研究结果表明:在森林经营的生态目标可持续性方面:昌化维持在5.65,高虹从4.69提高到5.09,临目从5.47提高到6.80。
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  forest
Moreover, a backward reasoning forest of a reachable marking was generated for explicitly representing reachable paths in RBS.
      
Growth Model System for National Continuous Forest Inventory
      
A Growth Model System is developed for data updating and forecasting of the national continuous forest inventory.
      
Its design is based on the inherent forest growth laws, and its parameters are estimated by modern regression methods.
      
It is suitable for forest resource information updating and forecasting for a large region, e.g., a province.
      
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  forests
The ecological water requirement of forests is defined as the water resources used to maintain and improve the natural balance of forest ecosystems, which can be expressed by evapotranspiration of trees during the growing season.
      
With geographic information system (GIS), the ecological water requirement for forests in the Jinghe watershed, western China was estimated.
      
The results revealed that the minimum and suitable ecological water requirements of the forests in the Jinghe watershed were approximately 204×107 and 340×107 m3, respectively.
      
Although the RENIs of plantations in rehabilitated fields are a little lower than those of natural forests, they are higher than those of cultivated crops.
      
Comparative Analysis of Plant Diversity of Pinus tabulaeformis Forests in Ten Regions of Beijing Mountainous Areas
      
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  forestry
According to the international methods of pest risk analysis and urban forestry characteristics in Beijing, a quantitative risk assessment system in Beijing for three primary non-indigenous pests was proposed.
      
Eco-emigration and the return of marginal agricultural land to forestry can be practiced.
      
This study was conducted at Maoershan Forest Research Station (45°21'-45°25'N, 127°30'-127°34'E) owned by Northeast Forestry University in Harbin, northeast China.
      
The Maoershan forestry centre is situated in the Zhangguangcai Mountain of the Changbai mountain range.
      
Following the principles of runoff-collecting forestry and applying the forest structure investigation results, the authors developed a formula to calculate appropriate density for forests on the basis of different diameters at breast height (DBH).
      
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Agrarian lands can be divided into plantation landa and non-plantation lands. How to make a full and rational use of non-plantation lands is an important problem in agricultural land division, a satisfactory solution of which can help develop and modernize agriculture as a whole,Ba County has good hydrothermal conditions with a ready foundation for the utilization of non-plantation lands. A structure has been formed with forests and gardening woods as its core. The difference is also noticed in geographical...

Agrarian lands can be divided into plantation landa and non-plantation lands. How to make a full and rational use of non-plantation lands is an important problem in agricultural land division, a satisfactory solution of which can help develop and modernize agriculture as a whole,Ba County has good hydrothermal conditions with a ready foundation for the utilization of non-plantation lands. A structure has been formed with forests and gardening woods as its core. The difference is also noticed in geographical division, which may follow the traditional method of classification or be calculated by means of quantitative analysis.on the basis of investigation, a suggestion has been put forward for the rational utilization of all the non-plantation lands in the county.Lands unfit for grains may be turned into non-plantation lands for oranges, tea or silkworms; lands with little or no woods may be used for forests; fish can be reared in paddy fields and whereever possible. This will help keep the ecological equivalence and make the countryside rich so as to speed up the modernization of agriculture.

农业用地可以划分为种植业用地和非种植业用地两大类。如何充分合理地利用非种植业用地,是农业现代化建设中搞好农业区划、发展大农业的一个重要问题。 巴县的水热条件优越,非种植业用地的利用已有基础,在利用上已形成以森林、园艺林地为主的非种植业用地结构,而且在地域分异上也存在着较为明显的差异。这种差异既可以用传统方法加以划分,也可以用数量分析方法进行计算,找出其地域差异。 为了充分合理地利用巴县的非种植业用地,在调查基础上,对全县非种植业用地的合理利用作了一个初步设想:将部分不适宜种植粮食作物的土地调整成为非种植业用地,发展适宜的柑桔、茶叶、桑蚕等;将疏林地、部分荒地用于植树造林;并充分利用可养殖水面和部分稻田发展养鱼。这样既可以有利于保持农业生态平衡,又有利于使全县农村尽快富起来,加快农业现代化建设的步伐。

The ecological environment has been greatly improved in Sijinzi rural area where plant coyer has increased from 6.8 percent to 16.3. percent. Two hundred and fifty-five sand, dupes .have been fixed by applying able measures to local conditions and adjusting proportions of farm, forestfy and grazing land which increased from 4:1:5in 1970 to 1.5:2.5:6 in 1984. Damage by wind erosion never occured after establishment of shelterbelts toproteet farmland. The pastlirehas been effectively protected by taking measures...

The ecological environment has been greatly improved in Sijinzi rural area where plant coyer has increased from 6.8 percent to 16.3. percent. Two hundred and fifty-five sand, dupes .have been fixed by applying able measures to local conditions and adjusting proportions of farm, forestfy and grazing land which increased from 4:1:5in 1970 to 1.5:2.5:6 in 1984. Damage by wind erosion never occured after establishment of shelterbelts toproteet farmland. The pastlirehas been effectively protected by taking measures to close hillsides to facilitate artificial grass establishment. The forage grass for one livestock (eg. horses, cattle, mules and-don-keys) was raised from 1.850kg. to 3, 000kg.. Although cultivated land for crop production was reduced by 58.3 percent, the total products were increased by 1.4 percent because of an increase in per unit area yield. Peasants or farmers in this rural area have turned their pure farming into a diversified economy. Annual income per person has increased from 177 to 500 Yuan. The abundance of natural resources are gradaally chatrging into useable products resuttiug in a superio-economy, A view of woody laad, bumper harvest and flourishing livestock was realized because of rational adjustment in farming, forestry and animal husbandry.

四井子乡因地制宜,调整农、林、牧用地,由70年代的4:1:5调至1984年的1.5:2.5:6.森林覆盖率由6.8%提高到16.3%,从而改善了生态环境,255个沙丘基本固定.农田防护林营造后,风蚀再未形成灾害;封山育草、人工育草的措施有效地保护了草场,每头大牲畜饲草占有量由整前的3700斤增加到6000斤,粮豆耕种面积虽减少了58.33%,但因提高了单产量,总产却增加了1.4%.该乡农民由单纯种植粮食转为多种经营,人均年收入由177元提高到500元.全乡农业自然资源优势逐步向产品优势、商品优势和经济优势转变,出现了林茂、畜旺、粮丰的景象.

The comprehensive utilization of River Pei, Shi, and Hang, the three-river area, in Anhui Province was a waster conservancy project including irrigation, electrity navigation and cultivation etc. It was an artificial ecological system, but Some ecological disasters occured in that place currently. Besides [adopting the policy of general help to the people there, the local government should also make ecological compensation such as afforestation in the mountainous districts.The funds for ecological compensation...

The comprehensive utilization of River Pei, Shi, and Hang, the three-river area, in Anhui Province was a waster conservancy project including irrigation, electrity navigation and cultivation etc. It was an artificial ecological system, but Some ecological disasters occured in that place currently. Besides [adopting the policy of general help to the people there, the local government should also make ecological compensation such as afforestation in the mountainous districts.The funds for ecological compensation could be made from the charges from water conservation for irrigation, from protection of water resources and generation of electricity from the reservoirs, and from exploitation of water resources for industry and living. The funds could also come from the charges for flood protection, from Water and soil conservation extended by the state and from the money delivered to the old revolutionary bases as subsidy and also from the exoloitation of other resources in the mountainous districts.The distribution of the funds for ecological compensation should be closely connected with the conditions of forest management, adopting the policy of providing work as a form of relief and aconomic contracts to bring full play of the initiation of the people in planting and protecting forests, so as to keep high level of ecological balance.

安徽省淠史杭沟通综合利用工程,即淠史杭灌区是灌溉、发电、航行、养殖等多功能水利工程,是一个人工生态系统。如今,有些地方出现了生态失调现象。 国家对那里的群众除采取一般性扶助政策外,建议还应对山区森林植被实行生态补偿。 生态补偿资金的来源以灌溉用水的水源涵养费,水库发电的水源保护费,工业、生活用水的水资源开发费,环境净化费,防洪效益费,国家下拨的水土保持费,包括老区补助在内的财政专项拨款和山区其它资源开发返偿费。 生态补偿费的发放应同树木管理的好坏紧密结合起来,实行以工代赈、经济承包的措施,充分发挥山区群众造林、管理(护林)积极性,使整个生态系统维持在一个高水平上的平衡。

 
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