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胚胎学性状
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  embryological characters
This paper, while providing a brief review of recent studies on Myrtales and associated families by me and my co-workers, discusses evidence for the general utility of embryological characters for the study of plant systematics.
      
However, because of a lack of sufficient data from each family of Laurales, embryological characters often have alternative possibilities with respect to where they have evolved.
      
Embryological characters of Siparunaceae, which are poorly understood, were studied on the basis of two constituent genera, an African Glossocalyx and a South American Siparuna, to better understand their evolution within Laurales.
      
Although functional aspects of those autapomorphies are uncertain, both Glossocalyx and Siparuna show evolution in different embryological characters.
      
The selected embryological characters were seen to be highly correlated with the molecular phylogeny.
      
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The development of ovules and embryo sacs in Ostrya virginiana was studied for the first time. Most ovaries had two ovules which were anatropous, unitegmic and crassinucellate. The ovule usually possessed several archesporial cells which divided periclinally into the upper parietal cell and the lower sporogenous cell. The sporogenous cell functioned directly as megaspore mother cell. The tetrad of megaspores was linear in arrangement, and every megaspore might be functional. One ovule often contained 2~6 embryo...

The development of ovules and embryo sacs in Ostrya virginiana was studied for the first time. Most ovaries had two ovules which were anatropous, unitegmic and crassinucellate. The ovule usually possessed several archesporial cells which divided periclinally into the upper parietal cell and the lower sporogenous cell. The sporogenous cell functioned directly as megaspore mother cell. The tetrad of megaspores was linear in arrangement, and every megaspore might be functional. One ovule often contained 2~6 embryo sacs and the embryo sac belongs to Polygonum type. It can be concluded from the present data that all ovules among the genera of the Betulaceae are unitegmic. There are more groups with the phenomenon of multiple embryo sacs in anemophic plants such as Betulaceae, Casuarinaceae, Graminae, Juglandaceae, Myricaceae, Simaroubaceae, Ulmaceae, than in entomophilous plants. Multiple embryo sacs also occur among some parasitic plants and saprophytes, e.g. Orobanchaceae, Cassytha in Lauraceae, Cuscuta in Convolvulaceae and Utricularia in Lentibulariaceae. It may be inferred that the characteristic of multiple embryo sacs be an evolutionary adaptation of those plants with lower pollination rate to increase the rate of fertilization. Finally, a comparison of embryological characters among the genera of the Betulaceae shows that the family is of a number of common embryological characters, such as multicellular archesporium, multiple embryo sacs in one ovule, and a long interval between pollination and fertilization. The diversity and systematic significance of several embryological characters among the “higher” hamamelid families are also discussed. It is still hard to explain the phylogenetic relationships among those families clearly only with.

首次报道了铁木属Ostrya的胚珠和胚囊发育过程。研究结果表明:O.virginiana的多数子房内有2个胚珠,胚珠倒生,单珠被,厚珠心,具1至数个孢原细胞;孢原细胞平周分裂形成一个周缘细胞和一个造孢细胞,造孢细胞直接发育成大孢子母细胞,四分体大孢子呈线形排列,它们均可成为功能大孢子;绝大多数胚珠中具2~6个胚囊,胚囊蓼型。最后,对珠被层数和多孢原、多胚囊等问题进行了讨论,并对桦木科各属的胚胎学性状作了比较,发现桦木科各属的胚胎学特征具有较高的一致性,如多孢原、多胚囊,较长的传粉和受精间隔期等。同时,比较和讨论了某些胚胎学性状,如胚珠类型和珠被层数,在高等金缕梅类各科间的异同及系统学意义。

The development of male and female gametophytes in Camellia yunnanensis(Pitard ex Diels)Cohen Stuart var. camellioides(Hu)Ming was revealed for the first time. A comparison of main embryological features among eight Camellia species was performed. The results show that these species are highly homogeneous in embryology and share quite a number of embryological characters such as anther tetrasporangiate,endothecium fibrous,middle layers ephemeral,tapetum glandular,cytokinesis of the microspore mother cell simultaneous,mature...

The development of male and female gametophytes in Camellia yunnanensis(Pitard ex Diels)Cohen Stuart var. camellioides(Hu)Ming was revealed for the first time. A comparison of main embryological features among eight Camellia species was performed. The results show that these species are highly homogeneous in embryology and share quite a number of embryological characters such as anther tetrasporangiate,endothecium fibrous,middle layers ephemeral,tapetum glandular,cytokinesis of the microspore mother cell simultaneous,mature pollen grains two-celled,ovules anatropous,bitegmic and tenuinucellate,archesporium one-celled and developing directly into the megaspore mother cell,Allium-type embryo sac,differentiation of hypostasa. The main embryological differences among these species lie in the differentiations of the innermost layer of the inner integument,egg apparatus and antipodal cells. The cells of the innermost layer of the inner integument are not characterized in C. chrysantha,however,exhibite some radial elongation in C. sasanqua,C. sinensis,C. yunnanensis var. camellioides,and further form endothelium in C. oleifera and C. reticulata. There is obvious difference between egg cell and synergids in these species investigated except C. oleifera. The antipodal nuclei of C. reticulata, C. sasanqua,C. sinensis and C. yunnanensis var. camellioides are wrapped up with cell walls,yet these of C. chrysantha and C. oleifera exist persistently as free nuclei. Embryological features in Camellia are of systematic significance to some extent.

首次报道了毛果猴子木 ( Cam ellia yunnanensis( Pitard ex Diels) Cohen Stuart var. camellioides( H u)Ming)雌雄配子体的形成和发育过程 ,并对业已报道的 8种山茶属植物的主要胚胎学特征进行了比较。结果显示 ,胚胎学性状在山茶属内具有较大的相似性 ,腺质绒毡层、同时型小孢子母细胞减数分裂、二细胞成熟花粉、倒生胚珠、双珠被、薄珠心、单孢原、合点端功能大孢子、葱型胚囊发育等特征为各代表种共有 ,主要的不同在于珠被绒毡层的有无、卵器和反足细胞的分化情况。笔者初步推测了这些差异在系统演化上的意义。

This paper reports the mega ,micro sporogenesis and female ,male gametogenesis of Swertia cincta for the first time,with the aim of discussing the systematic position of section Platynema and section Ophelia of Swertia Anthers are tetrasporangiate The development of anther walls conforms to the dicotyledonous type The tapetum cells have dual origin and are similar to the glandular type There are two middle layers The endothecium and epidermis persist Cytokinesis in the microsporocyte...

This paper reports the mega ,micro sporogenesis and female ,male gametogenesis of Swertia cincta for the first time,with the aim of discussing the systematic position of section Platynema and section Ophelia of Swertia Anthers are tetrasporangiate The development of anther walls conforms to the dicotyledonous type The tapetum cells have dual origin and are similar to the glandular type There are two middle layers The endothecium and epidermis persist Cytokinesis in the microsporocyte meiosis is simultaneous type and the microspore teads are tetrahedral Pollen grains are 3 celled The ovary is bicarpellum and unilocular The placentation is of suparietal placentation with 12 series of ovules The ovule is unitegmic,tenuinucellar and ana campylotropous The embryo sac originates from the single archesporial cell The one chalazal megaspore in linear tetrad becomes the functional megaspore The development of embryo sac is of the Polygonum type Before fertilization,two polar nuclei fuse into one secondary nucleus Three antipodal cells persisted and divided into 5-8 cells A comparison between two sections indicates that section Platynema is better treated as distinct section and is more advanced than section Ophelia according to the evolutionary trends of embryological characters

报道了西南獐牙菜的大、小孢子发生及雌、雄配子体发育过程 ,并以此讨论了獐牙菜属宽丝组和多枝组的分类等级和系统演化关系。西南獐牙菜花药四室 ;药壁发育为双子叶型 ;绒毡层二型起源 ,腺质型 ;中层细胞 2层 ;药室内壁纤维状加厚 ,药壁表皮宿存。小孢子母细胞减数分裂为同时型 ;小孢子四分体的排列为四面体形 ;成熟花粉为 3-细胞型。子房为 2心皮 ,1室 ,胚珠 12列 ,故为超侧膜胎座。薄珠心 ,单珠被 ,倒弯生胚珠。大孢子母细胞减数分裂形成 4个大孢子呈直线形排列 ,合点端的大孢子具功能。胚囊发育为蓼型。两极核在受精前融合为次生核。 3个反足细胞次生增殖为 5~ 8个 ,宿存。比较宽丝组和多枝组的胚胎学性状表明宽丝组从多枝组中分出是合理的 ,在系统位置上宽丝组较多枝组进化

 
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