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实体隐喻
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  ontological metaphor
     Taking theories of Lakoff & Johnson's Domains Mapping and Fauconnier & Turner's Conceptual Integration as its starting point,the article tries to analyse meaning construction in the creation of metaphors by using English corpus of "time" from the aspects of ontological metaphor,orientational metaphor and structural metaphor,in order to discuss the construction of metaphors and the feasibility of using Conceptual Integration to explain it.
     从Lakoff和Johnson的概念域映射理论和Turnerr概念整合理论入手,结合英语语料,从实体隐喻、方位隐喻、结构性隐喻三个方面对“time”这一单词产生的隐喻性词语进行分析,探讨“time”隐喻的建构过程及利用概念整合理论解释它的可行性。
短句来源
     According to the different source domains concerned, conceptual metaphors can be divided into three types, i.e. spatial metaphor, ontological metaphor and structural metaphor.
     根据隐喻的始源域不同,隐喻可分为空间隐喻、实体隐喻和结构隐喻。
短句来源
     In a cognitive perspective, metaphor can be classified as three types: structural metaphor, orientational metaphor and ontological metaphor.
     从认知角度,隐喻可以分为三类:结构隐喻,方位隐喻及实体隐喻
短句来源
     As to the organization of the thesis, after reviewing the development of metaphorical research, the thesis elaborates some major viewpoints of the conceptual metaphor theory. It distinguishes the difference between"conceptual metaphor" and "metaphorical expression", classifies the conceptual metaphor into three main types: orientational metaphor, ontological metaphor and structural metaphor, and discusses its two prominent features, that is, systematicity and cultural coherence.
     本文首先回顾了隐喻研究发展的历程,然后介绍了概念隐喻理论的主要观点:区分了“概念隐喻”和“隐喻语言”,将概念隐喻分成方位隐喻、实体隐喻和结构隐喻三大类,并探讨了概念隐喻的主要特征——系统性和文化一致性。
短句来源
     Conceptual metaphor is very important cognitive model as many cognitive linguists claim that our thought is metaphorically structured. This thesis devotes more space to the analysis of semantic motivation of conceptual metaphor (including structure metaphor, container metaphor, ontological metaphor, orientation metaphor) behind the idioms;
     概念隐喻是非常重要的概念结构,许多认知语言学家认为人类的思维方式本身就是隐喻性的,本文也大篇幅着墨于概念隐喻(包括结构隐喻,容器隐喻,实体隐喻和方向隐喻)作为成语语义理据的普遍性;
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  ontological metaphors
     There are three main kinds of conceptual metaphors: Structural, Orientational, and Ontological metaphors.
     Lakoff和Johnson将概念隐喻分为三类:结构隐喻、方位隐喻、实体隐喻,并对它们作了细致的分析。
短句来源
  “实体隐喻”译为未确定词的双语例句
     Then the conceptual metaphors in English and Chinese are analyzed. Orientational, ontological and structural metaphors exist pervasively in both languages, which are illustrated by English and Chinese idioms.
     接着作者对英语和汉语中的概念隐喻进行了分析,方位隐喻、实体隐喻和结构隐喻在两种语言中都普遍存在,这在英汉习语中得到了体现。
短句来源
     The similarity between them has been proved aright and tested in positional metaphors, substantial metaphors and constructional metaphors, and the creativity has been broadly applied in literary works, science and technology and social life.
     两者之间的相似性在方位隐喻、实体隐喻和结构隐喻中都得到了充分的论证和检验,而其创造性则在文学作品、科学技术乃至社会生活中得到了广泛的应用。
短句来源
     Generally, there are two kinds of metaphorical cognition: 1. Entity metaphorical cognition that is used when the speaker regards the discourse as a phonetic;
     人们对“话语”的隐喻认知大致有两种模式,当发话者把“话语”当作一个音义结合的整体时,往往采用实体隐喻模式;
短句来源
     The metaphor is of universiaty and comcept in essence,and it is a useful tool of cognition.
     隐喻具有普遍性,隐喻在本质上是概念的,是有价值的认知工具。 概念隐喻通常以结构隐喻、方位隐喻和实体隐喻的方式来实现。
短句来源
     Many examples of the time metaphor in the daily Chinese lan guage proved the metaphor to be in the important position.
     形成方位隐喻、实体隐喻、结构隐喻三种隐喻方式。 汉语时间概念隐喻在人类语言尤其是在日常语言中占有重要地位。
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The similarity and creativity between source domain and target domain which form metaphors account for the acceptability of metaphors as a kind of language phenomena. The so-called similarity refers to the association between the two domains produced in human cognitive domain, and the creativity refers to the constant expansion of their similarity so as to create more reflection between the two domains. The similarity between them has been proved aright and tested in positional metaphors, substantial metaphors...

The similarity and creativity between source domain and target domain which form metaphors account for the acceptability of metaphors as a kind of language phenomena. The so-called similarity refers to the association between the two domains produced in human cognitive domain, and the creativity refers to the constant expansion of their similarity so as to create more reflection between the two domains. The similarity between them has been proved aright and tested in positional metaphors, substantial metaphors and constructional metaphors, and the creativity has been broadly applied in literary works, science and technology and social life.

隐喻作为一种语言现象能够被人们所接受,是因为构成隐喻的源域与靶域间存在着相似性与创造性。所谓相似性,是指人类在认知领域对它们产生了相似的联想;所谓创造性,是指人们不断地扩展它们之间相似性的意义,创造出两域间更多的映合。两者之间的相似性在方位隐喻、实体隐喻和结构隐喻中都得到了充分的论证和检验,而其创造性则在文学作品、科学技术乃至社会生活中得到了广泛的应用。

This paper gives many examples to prove that in the economic field there also exist metaphors, which are vital and helpful ways to understand economic theories and phenomena and proposes different methods should betaken in translating them according to the different level of readers' familiarity.

空间隐喻、结构隐喻、实体隐喻和容器隐喻在经济领域里被广泛应用。对隐喻的研究有助于我们正确把握经济理论 ,翻译经济文章。针对经济文章的文体特征 ,根据译文读者对其文化内涵的熟悉程度 ,译者可分别采取直译、意译、换译及直译加注等翻译策略。

As a tool of expressing people′s feeling and thought, discourse itself has only abstract features, but people endow it with physical attribute through metaphorical cognition. Generally, there are two kinds of metaphorical cognition: 1. Entity metaphorical cognition that is used when the speaker regards the discourse as a phonetic; 2. Semantic combination and container metaphorical cognition when the speaker accentuates the meaning of discourse.

作为表达人们思想感情的“话语”本身只具有抽象的特征,然而在语言运用中,人们通过隐喻认知方式赋予了“话语”它本身不具有的物理属性。人们对“话语”的隐喻认知大致有两种模式,当发话者把“话语”当作一个音义结合的整体时,往往采用实体隐喻模式;当发话者着重强调“话语”所表达的意义时,一般采用容器隐喻模式。

 
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