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测量准则
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     THE UNIFICATION OF DIFFERENT CRITERIAOF ESTIMATION IN ADJUSTMENT
     测量平差中估计准则的统一
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     On the Measurement of International Harmony of Accounting Standards
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     The remanent polarization (P)is measured.
     测量了极化强度P。
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     Uncertainty in measurement
     测量不确定度
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     AUDITING STANDARDS
     审计准则
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A method is presented to design general Multisiage VQ which can effectively subdue the exponentially growing computational complexity and storage require-ment with the dimension of vector,so that larger dimension of vector can be used to obtain better data compression.This method permits to assign the num-ber of the VQ′s stage,the dimension of the vector,bits per sample or transmission rate,and the number of initial codebook at will.Then these initial codebooks are optimized locally,and the best one of them...

A method is presented to design general Multisiage VQ which can effectively subdue the exponentially growing computational complexity and storage require-ment with the dimension of vector,so that larger dimension of vector can be used to obtain better data compression.This method permits to assign the num-ber of the VQ′s stage,the dimension of the vector,bits per sample or transmission rate,and the number of initial codebook at will.Then these initial codebooks are optimized locally,and the best one of them is chosen.Distortion computation is

本文介绍了一种通用多级矢量量化器的设计方法。这种量化器能有效地克服运算复杂度与存贮器需要量随矢量维数成指数律增长的困难,因而能采用较大的矢量维数以达到较佳的数据压缩率。该方法允许任意指定量化器的级数、矢量维数、每采样码数或传输速率,并按任意指定的数目生成初始码本并将它们优化到局部最优点,然后从中挑出最佳者。该方法中误差计算为一独立模块,可通过更换不同模块来实现以不同误差测量准则来优化码本。由于该方法能方便地设计出具有各种不同参数的多级矢量量化器,故能对量化器级数、矢量维数、每采样码数及不同误差测量方法与量化器性能的关系作有效地研究模拟。本文还给出用该法设计的传输速率为16kbit/s及9.6kbit/s两个多级语音波形矢量量化器的模拟结果。

Based on the five groups of genes expressed similarly during yeast diauxic shift, we studied the effects of different measuring metrics, data preprocessing and centroids initialization on K means clustering. The results illustrate that the best centroids initialization in K means clustering is to select vectors characterized the structure of the dataset. However, if the centroids are initialized randomly, clustering on the relative expression ratio under Euclidean distance metrics can obtain the best results....

Based on the five groups of genes expressed similarly during yeast diauxic shift, we studied the effects of different measuring metrics, data preprocessing and centroids initialization on K means clustering. The results illustrate that the best centroids initialization in K means clustering is to select vectors characterized the structure of the dataset. However, if the centroids are initialized randomly, clustering on the relative expression ratio under Euclidean distance metrics can obtain the best results. With Euclidean distance, normalization of the dataset only leads to worse results, for amplitude character of the dataset maybe destroyed. Meanwhile, different data preprocessing ways make unclear differences under Pearson correlation coefficient metrics.

基于酵母二次迁移实验中表达谱相似的五类基因表达数据 ,研究了不同相似性度量准则、数据预处理方法及质心初始化方式对 K -均值聚类效果的影响。结果表明 :若对基因表达数据进行 K-均值聚类分析 ,最好采用能反映数据结构特征的向量对质心进行初始化。若随机初始化质心 ,则采用取相对表达水平的预处理方式 ,以欧几里德距离 (Euclidean distance)作为相似性测量准则 ,可以获得最佳的聚类结果 ;在欧氏距离准则下 ,标准化处理因可能破坏原始数据的幅度特征 ,而导致聚类结果变坏。若以 Pearson相关系数为相似性准则则不同的数据预处理方式对结果无显著影响

A method for the quantitative analysis on wireless network planning errors was proposed in which the drive test data of network was sampled to estimate statistically the errors of the planning results. It was pointed that the accuracy of error analysis was governed by the measurement criteria in randomly varied radio environment. The relation between the measurement criteria and the confidence level of planning errors was analyzed theoretically in the final.

研究了对无线网络规划结果进行定量误差分析的方法.通过对现网数据的路测采样,统计出规划结果的整体误差.在随机变化的无线环境中,测量准则影响误差分析的准确性.对测量准则与误差分析置信度之间的关系进行了理论分析.

 
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