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有性重组
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  “有性重组”译为未确定词的双语例句
     Rice blast pathogen, Magnaporthe grisea, has very complicated variation mechanisms in pathogenicity, among which sexual and parasexual recombinations might be very important though no direct evidence has been found in the field. This paper reviews briefly the progresses in the research on the two mechanisms.
     稻瘟病菌变异机制极其复杂,有性重组和准性重组可能起着重要作用,但在田间植株上还未找到直接证据,并综述了这两种变异机制的研究进展。
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     The recombinant plasmid expressed well in E.
     从重组E.
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     4)industry's recombination.
     产业重组 ;
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     Discuss on Obligate Seed Reproduction of Gastrodia Elata
     天麻有性繁殖研究
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  sexual recombination
Distribution of mating types and genetic diversity induced by sexual recombination in Setosphaeria turcica in northern China
      
Random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis also revealed high genotype diversity among the progeny isolates, indicating that the sexual recombination could also produce significant genetic variation in the fungal pathogen.
      
The first phase produces a diverse array of clones by sexual recombination.
      
Genetic diversity in pathogen populations may arise through mutation and gene flow, and new virulence genotypes may then be established through parasexuality and sexual recombination.
      
Algal isolates from giant clams have a level of RAPD variation comparable to organisms that are able to undergo sexual recombination.
      
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  sexual hybridization
Molecular evidence on maize specific DNA fragment transferred into wheat through sexual hybridization
      
These results confirm the fact thatTripsacum dactyloides DNA has been integrated into wheat genome by sexual hybridization at molecular level.
      
Application and potentials of transferringTripsacum dactyloides DNA into wheat genome by sexual hybridization in wheat breeding are discussed.
      
Attempts at sexual hybridization of these two species repeatedly failed thus confirming their previously established cross-incompatibility.
      
The data obtained are interpreted as new evidence for the possibility of using non-sexual hybridization for the production of intergeneric, intertribal plant hybrids which cannot be obtained by sexual crossing.
      
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Fifty sexual hybrids were obtained from 3760 single oospore isolates from pairing of two Phytophthora cactorum isolates (AP14M r 1 52 with resistance to metalaxyl and sensitivity to chloroneb, PK9Cn r 2 24 with resistance to chloroneb and sensitivity to metalaxyl) which were incubated on SL media for 36 days. Biological characteristics of randomly selected 32 hybrids were tested in growth rate, sexual and asexual reproduction capacity, oospore and zoospore germination rate,pathogenicity, and tolerance...

Fifty sexual hybrids were obtained from 3760 single oospore isolates from pairing of two Phytophthora cactorum isolates (AP14M r 1 52 with resistance to metalaxyl and sensitivity to chloroneb, PK9Cn r 2 24 with resistance to chloroneb and sensitivity to metalaxyl) which were incubated on SL media for 36 days. Biological characteristics of randomly selected 32 hybrids were tested in growth rate, sexual and asexual reproduction capacity, oospore and zoospore germination rate,pathogenicity, and tolerance towards high temperature. Results were as follow, the 32 hybrids tested grew well on lima bean agar (LBA), 24 of which were the intermediate between their parents in growth rate; most of hybrids tested produced a great number of oospores on LBA or SL,37% of hybrids produced much more oospores than their parents on SL; most of hybrids produced a great number of zoosporangia in vitro , 15 hybrids were the intermediate between their parents in production of zoosporangia; oospores or zoospores of hybrids tested may germinate and create effective single oospore or zoospore isolates; the germination rate of oospores from 22 hybrids were more than 50%; the tested hybrids inoculated on apple fruits were of virulent, 16 of which were of significantly stronger pathogenicity as compared with their parents. These results show that sexual hybrids from homothallic P. cactorum were of strong fitness at population level in vitro , indicating that sexual recombination of different isolates might play a important role in enhancing the diversity of P. cactorum.

将 2个带有不同抗药性标记的恶疫霉菌株配对 ,培养 36 d后诱导其卵孢子萌发 ,从 376 0个单卵孢株中 ,获得 50株带有双亲标记的杂交个体。对其中 32株杂交个体的生长速率、有性和无性繁殖能力、卵孢子和游动孢子萌发率、致病力及对高温的耐受力等生物学性状进行测定。结果显示 ,测试的 32株杂交个体在 L BA培养基上均能较好地生长 ,有 2 4株的杂交个体的生长速率介于 2亲本之间 ;在 L BA和 SL培养基上 ,大多数杂交个体均能产生较大数量的卵孢子 ,有 37%的杂交个体在 SL培养基上产卵孢子能力显著大于双亲 ,仅有 1个杂交个体不产生卵孢子 ;在人工培养条件下 ,大多数供试杂交个体可以产生较大数量的孢子囊 ,其中 15株杂交个体产孢子囊能力处于双亲之间 ;被测的杂交个体产生的卵孢子或游动孢子均可以萌发形成有效的单孢株 ,有 2 2株的杂交个体的卵孢子萌发率大于 50 % ;被测的杂交个体接种在苹果上都有较强的致病力 ,有 16株杂交个体的致病力显著大于双亲。表明在群体水平上恶疫霉有性杂交后代具有较强的生活能力 ,提示同宗配合恶疫霉不同菌株间的有性重组 ,对该种的群体遗传多样性可能具...

将 2个带有不同抗药性标记的恶疫霉菌株配对 ,培养 36 d后诱导其卵孢子萌发 ,从 376 0个单卵孢株中 ,获得 50株带有双亲标记的杂交个体。对其中 32株杂交个体的生长速率、有性和无性繁殖能力、卵孢子和游动孢子萌发率、致病力及对高温的耐受力等生物学性状进行测定。结果显示 ,测试的 32株杂交个体在 L BA培养基上均能较好地生长 ,有 2 4株的杂交个体的生长速率介于 2亲本之间 ;在 L BA和 SL培养基上 ,大多数杂交个体均能产生较大数量的卵孢子 ,有 37%的杂交个体在 SL培养基上产卵孢子能力显著大于双亲 ,仅有 1个杂交个体不产生卵孢子 ;在人工培养条件下 ,大多数供试杂交个体可以产生较大数量的孢子囊 ,其中 15株杂交个体产孢子囊能力处于双亲之间 ;被测的杂交个体产生的卵孢子或游动孢子均可以萌发形成有效的单孢株 ,有 2 2株的杂交个体的卵孢子萌发率大于 50 % ;被测的杂交个体接种在苹果上都有较强的致病力 ,有 16株杂交个体的致病力显著大于双亲。表明在群体水平上恶疫霉有性杂交后代具有较强的生活能力 ,提示同宗配合恶疫霉不同菌株间的有性重组 ,对该种的群体遗传多样性可能具重要作用

Silver crucian carp ( Carassius auratus gibelio) has been known for its gynogenetic reproduction. In this paper, eggs from clone F of gynogenetic silver crucian carp were inseminated respectively by sperms of clone D, clone A and common carp, and polymorphic patterns of transferrin and isozymes of the produced three offspring FD, FA and FL were studied comparatively to explore the diversity in reproductive modes of silver crucian carp. As control, zymograms of FL progenies exhibited a maternally clonal inheritance,...

Silver crucian carp ( Carassius auratus gibelio) has been known for its gynogenetic reproduction. In this paper, eggs from clone F of gynogenetic silver crucian carp were inseminated respectively by sperms of clone D, clone A and common carp, and polymorphic patterns of transferrin and isozymes of the produced three offspring FD, FA and FL were studied comparatively to explore the diversity in reproductive modes of silver crucian carp. As control, zymograms of FL progenies exhibited a maternally clonal inheritance, and gynogenesis was reconfirmed. However, differentiation of morphs and electrophoretic patterns was both observed among the FD progenies, and detection of bands specific for the clone F or clone D in some FD individuals urged the occurrence of recombination. Furthermore, extreme linkage disequilibrium for different protein loci suggested that linkage groups composed of different genes might function as the fundamental unit in the recombination. With respect to FA group, phenotypes of parental clones were both detected in the F2 generation (FA× FA progenies) while only maternal phenotypes were detected in the F1 generation. It appeared that both the parental chromosome sets could be transmitted to the offspring but expression of paternal genes were fundamentally upset in the F1 generation because of incompatibility of the parental genes. Generally, genetic analysis of FD and FA offspring primarily exhibited a particular syngamy for silver crucian carp. Besides the clonal reproduction of gynogenesis, syngamy could provide opportunities of recombination for silver crucian carp, which might remove some genetic loads from the genome and introduce new genotypes. Diversity in reproductive modes might play an important role in ecological adaptation of silver crucian carp.

用银鲫克隆D、克隆A和鲤鱼的精子分别与银鲫克隆F的卵子受精产生了三种繁殖组合FD、LA和FL;再用转铁蛋白和同工酶标记对这三种组合的遗传模式进行比较研究。结果发现,FL组合的子代具有与其母本完全相同的体形和电泳图谱,表现出雌核生殖银鲫的克隆品性。而在FD组合中则出现了体形的分化和酶谱的多态性;在一些个体的蛋白座位上同时检测到了父本和母本各自特有的谱带,证明FD生殖过程中有性重组的发生。同时,在所研究的蛋白的不同座位上存在着极端的连锁不平衡现象,可以推断在FD的重组过程中多个基因座位组成的连锁群(甚至是染色体组)可能作为一个整体参与基因的传递。此外,不同的蛋白座位上都未观察到重组的纯合表型,暗示在不同的基因连锁群之间还可能存在一种平衡致死的机制。FA组合的F1代具有类似母本克隆F的体形和蛋白表型,FA组合个体近交产生的F2代却同时出现了克隆F和克隆A的体形和表型。即父本和母本的染色体组都能够通过有性生殖传递给FA子代,然而可能由于父母本基因的不相容性而使F1代父本的基因表达受到抑制。相对于雌核生殖的克隆遗传,本研究所揭示出来的有性生殖特性及伴随的有性重组能够使银鲫在一定程度上卸去积累的遗...

用银鲫克隆D、克隆A和鲤鱼的精子分别与银鲫克隆F的卵子受精产生了三种繁殖组合FD、LA和FL;再用转铁蛋白和同工酶标记对这三种组合的遗传模式进行比较研究。结果发现,FL组合的子代具有与其母本完全相同的体形和电泳图谱,表现出雌核生殖银鲫的克隆品性。而在FD组合中则出现了体形的分化和酶谱的多态性;在一些个体的蛋白座位上同时检测到了父本和母本各自特有的谱带,证明FD生殖过程中有性重组的发生。同时,在所研究的蛋白的不同座位上存在着极端的连锁不平衡现象,可以推断在FD的重组过程中多个基因座位组成的连锁群(甚至是染色体组)可能作为一个整体参与基因的传递。此外,不同的蛋白座位上都未观察到重组的纯合表型,暗示在不同的基因连锁群之间还可能存在一种平衡致死的机制。FA组合的F1代具有类似母本克隆F的体形和蛋白表型,FA组合个体近交产生的F2代却同时出现了克隆F和克隆A的体形和表型。即父本和母本的染色体组都能够通过有性生殖传递给FA子代,然而可能由于父母本基因的不相容性而使F1代父本的基因表达受到抑制。相对于雌核生殖的克隆遗传,本研究所揭示出来的有性生殖特性及伴随的有性重组能够使银鲫在一定程度上卸去积累的遗传负荷并从其它种群获取新的基因型,以维持其遗传多样性。多种可选择的生殖方式可能对于银鲫在自然条件下的生态适应有着重要意义,对于银鲫的遗传选育和养殖管理也有一定的参考价值。

Sexual hybridizations were conducted between an albino mutant of low pathogenicity and wild isolates of high pathogenicity to reveal the inheritance of pathogenicity of Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici. Dry weight of shoots of diseased seedlings was used as measurement of pathogenicity. The results indicated that pathogenicity of the fungus had a polygenic character and was controlled by 5~7 genes. Segregation in F1 generations distributed continuously, and the mean of pathogenicity in posterity was close...

Sexual hybridizations were conducted between an albino mutant of low pathogenicity and wild isolates of high pathogenicity to reveal the inheritance of pathogenicity of Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici. Dry weight of shoots of diseased seedlings was used as measurement of pathogenicity. The results indicated that pathogenicity of the fungus had a polygenic character and was controlled by 5~7 genes. Segregation in F1 generations distributed continuously, and the mean of pathogenicity in posterity was close to that in two parents. The heritability of pathogenicity was 54.36 %~71.00%,with the mean of 62.32%.The pathogenicity varied with environment remarkably. There was no correlation between pathogenicity and colours of colony.

利用弱致病性白化突变菌株与强致病菌株进行有性重组,研究了小麦全蚀病菌(禾顶囊壳小麦变种,Gaeumannomyces gramimis var. tritici)致病性的遗传规律。结果表明,以接种株地上部干重为致病性指标时,该菌对小麦的致病性为数量遗传性状,估计控制致病性的基因数为5 ~ 7个。弱致病菌株与强致病菌株杂交F1代致病性由弱至强呈连续分布,子代致病性的平均水平接近种亲代致病性的平均值。致病性的遗传力为54.36% ~ 71.00%,平均为62.32%。致病性表型易受环境因素的影响。菌落颜色与致病性无明显相关。

 
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