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降水的化学特性
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Based on the chemical analysis of precipitation obtained on 33 stations in China, 29 stations in Japan and 9 stations in the USA, the chemical characteristics of precipitation in China, Japan and USA are analyzed and compared. It is shown that the chemical features of precipitation in these countries are quite different. There are acid rain in all these three countries, but the lowest pH value is found in the USA. The total ion concentration of rain water in China is the highest, among which the concentrations...

Based on the chemical analysis of precipitation obtained on 33 stations in China, 29 stations in Japan and 9 stations in the USA, the chemical characteristics of precipitation in China, Japan and USA are analyzed and compared. It is shown that the chemical features of precipitation in these countries are quite different. There are acid rain in all these three countries, but the lowest pH value is found in the USA. The total ion concentration of rain water in China is the highest, among which the concentrations of SO4= , NH/ and Ca++ are especially high. The Cl- and Na+ concentrations of rain water in Japan are extraordinarily high. NO3- concentration of rain water in the USA is the highest. Analysis of the structure of ion components and various ratios of ions indicates that the influence of land sources on ion concentrations of rain water in China is significant, while influence of sea sources on ion concentrations of rain water is the largest in Japan, and influence of the industry pollution on ion concentrations of rain water is the largest in USA. In this paper the chemical characteristics of precipitation in different regions of China and Japan are also discussed and analyzed.

本文对中国33个站、日本29个站及美国9个站的降水化学资料进行了分析比较.结果表明,中、日、美三国的降水化学特性有很大不同.三国都有酸雨,但以美国的pH值最低.雨水中离子总浓度以中国为最高,其中SO_4~=,NH_4~+和Ca~(++)的浓度特别高.日本雨水中Cl~-和Na~+的浓度很高.NO_3~-在美国雨水中最高.从雨水中离子结构组成和几种重要参量的比值分析表明,中国雨水中的离子浓度受陆地源影响很大,而影响日本雨水中离子浓度最大因素是海洋.在美国以工业交通污染的影响相对最大.文中还对中、日两国不同地区的降水化学特性进行了分析和讨论.

In the analysis and comparing of the chemical characteristics of precipitation in different areas, if we list the concrete data of all ions, it is very complicated and difficult to get the conclusion. In this paper, we suggest a simplified method to do it. First, we summarize some most important characteristics with representative alphabets, then divide these characteristics into different levels with representative Arabic numerals. By using a group of this kind of alphebets and numerals, we can discribe and...

In the analysis and comparing of the chemical characteristics of precipitation in different areas, if we list the concrete data of all ions, it is very complicated and difficult to get the conclusion. In this paper, we suggest a simplified method to do it. First, we summarize some most important characteristics with representative alphabets, then divide these characteristics into different levels with representative Arabic numerals. By using a group of this kind of alphebets and numerals, we can discribe and compare the main chemical characteristics of precipitation in different area. Based on the generally used observed data, we analyse and compare the typical chemical characteristics of precipitation in the three main acid rain areas.

在分析比较不同地区降水化学特性时,如果列出各种离子的具体数值,既显得繁琐又不容易得出结论。现提出一种简便方法,即先概括出几种最重要的降水化学特性,分别以字母代表,再把这些特性分成几个等级以数字表示,就能很直观方便地比较这些地区的降水化学特性。还利用权威观测资料,以上述方法具体比较了世界主要酸雨地区的降水化学特性。

The chemical characteristics of precipitation in coastal and northwestern area of China are compared and analyzed in this paper. Results showed some dissimilarities and similarities. Almost all ion concentrations except H+ in precipitation of northwestern China are greater than that in coastal areas. H+ is much greater in coastal areas than in northwestern areas. The chemical characteristics of precipitation in northwestern China is mainly affected by continental materials, while coastal areas is mainly affected...

The chemical characteristics of precipitation in coastal and northwestern area of China are compared and analyzed in this paper. Results showed some dissimilarities and similarities. Almost all ion concentrations except H+ in precipitation of northwestern China are greater than that in coastal areas. H+ is much greater in coastal areas than in northwestern areas. The chemical characteristics of precipitation in northwestern China is mainly affected by continental materials, while coastal areas is mainly affected by industrial pollution. The ratio of NO3-/SO42- in these two areas are relatively low, the acidity in the precipitation is mainly in the form of sulfuric acid.

 对我国沿海和西北地区降水化学特性进行了对比分析,结果表明:西北地区降水中各种离子浓度都高于沿海地区,而沿海地区降水中H+的比例则远远高于西北地区,西北地区降水特性主要是受陆地源影响,沿海地区则主要受工业污染.两地NO3-/SO42-较低,降水中酸的性质主要表现为硫酸特征.

 
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