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Adult albino mice were starved for 66 to 120 hours and the liver was examined forphosphatases, glycogen and ribonucleic acid. Alkaline phosphatase was found to increasemoderately while acid phosphatase showed no significant change. Both glycogen andribonucleic acid disappeared completely. The periphery of the hepatic lobule often stainedmore deeply than the centre due mainly to the conspicuous staining of the cell borderand of the Kupffer cells. The duration of starvation had no infiuence on the amountof both...

Adult albino mice were starved for 66 to 120 hours and the liver was examined forphosphatases, glycogen and ribonucleic acid. Alkaline phosphatase was found to increasemoderately while acid phosphatase showed no significant change. Both glycogen andribonucleic acid disappeared completely. The periphery of the hepatic lobule often stainedmore deeply than the centre due mainly to the conspicuous staining of the cell borderand of the Kupffer cells. The duration of starvation had no infiuence on the amountof both alkaline and acid phosphatases. In the refeeding experiment, mice starved for 48 to 72 hours were refed and werekilled 11 to 72 hours after subjecting to normal diet. The liver cells contained even greateramount of glycogen than in control animals. The restoration of ribonucleic acid was onlypartial. Both alkaline and acid phosphatases showed variable activities in the refeedingliver. The liver cells usually swelled and became rarefied, the sinusoids were very in-conspicuous. The swelling and rarefation of liver cells were caused by the accumulationof glycogen during refeeding. Three days refeeding did not bring this histological pictureto that of the control liver.

1.本实验系用年幼的小白鼠绝食66至120小时,及重喂11小时至3日, 观察肝脏内硷性及酸性磷酸酶、核糖核酸及糖元的改变。结果绝食的肝脏内糖元及核糖核酸完全消失;硷性磷酸酶中等量增加;酸性磷酸酶无变化。重喂的肝脏内糖元比对照标本更多,核糖核酸未完全恢复,硷性及酸性磷酸酶变化不一致。 2.绝食 66小时以上肝细胞内硷性及酸性磷酸酶含量并不随绝食时间延长而增多。 3.重喂的肝细胞膨大,细胞质稀薄中空,血窦狭窄。这种改变在重喂11小时後即已出现,连喂3日并无恢复的迹象。中空的原因是由於糖元增多所致。

Ericerus pela Chavannes, the insect producing white wax,belongs to Coccidae,Homoptera. The female adult lays eggs while the male larva produces wax, whichis a well-known product from Southwest China. The wax secreted by the malelarvae may be boiled and extracted to result in something known as white wax.Its boiling point reaches above 82-83℃. It has manifold uses. Before WorldWar Ⅱ, besides the consumption at home, th greater part of this product wasexported abroad. The supply of the female adults of this wax...

Ericerus pela Chavannes, the insect producing white wax,belongs to Coccidae,Homoptera. The female adult lays eggs while the male larva produces wax, whichis a well-known product from Southwest China. The wax secreted by the malelarvae may be boiled and extracted to result in something known as white wax.Its boiling point reaches above 82-83℃. It has manifold uses. Before WorldWar Ⅱ, besides the consumption at home, th greater part of this product wasexported abroad. The supply of the female adults of this wax insect in the wax-producing districtusually appears short annually, due to a peculiarity in the growth of this creature;and therefore naturally exist two correlative districts, that is a district of adultproduction and one of wax production. As these two.districts are located morethan 500 kilometres apart,every year the female adults ready to be transplantedon he feeding trees in the district of wax production have to be supplied bythe district of adult production, and they must be carried over a long distance.The carriage of the female adults of the wax insect from one place to theother has been practiced for about five hundred years by the people engaged inwax production. This article reports on a test of transportation of the female adults of the wax insect from Paikuowan (白菓湾) in Hweili County (会理县), formerly of SikangProvince to Huhtaokou (核桃沟) in Omei County (峨眉县), Szechwan Province.Investigations in this connection were made from the April 30 to May 13, 1941. It has long been the aim of the growers to produce the female adults of theinsect and the wax in the same locality. With this realized, the area of wax pro-duction would be enlarged, and the quantity of wax increased. However, as the female adults of the insect in the distr .ct of wax produc-tion are subject to such natural adversities as geographical features, temperatureand humidity, parasitic enemies etc., up to the present they cannot be raised andsapplied insufficient quantity in this district. For this reason, to in prove themethod of transporting the adults female insects to the wax-producing district, toShorten the time on the way,and to increase the vitality of the male larvae-all these have become the crucial questions in the promotion of wax production. The principal explanation, knowh for centuries, with regard to the impossi-bility to raise the female adults of the insects in the district of wax productionhas been the peculiar fact that the female larvae could not be carried in quickorder to a place over 500 kilometres apart. The present test has proved that al-though the female larvae were, in the greater part, hatched out on the way, therewere still a part of them reaching the destination in safety. Valuable informat-ion was also obtained on the hatching rate of the male and female larvae on theway, the influence of environmental factors on the sex ratio, the different speciesof parasitic enemies, etc.. It is hoped thet the facts thus ascertained will be ofservice to improving the methods of wax production.

白蜡虫是我国的特产,古代农民远在元朝已有饲养。在过去全国的白蜡年产量约在五万至十万担间,据1918年重庆海关报告有一万一千余担,值银七十七万余海 关两。解放前一、二十年来,由于国民党反动派的不重视和摧残,已逐渐衰落。白蜡是化学工业上的重要原料,用途很广,饲养蜡虫又是西南各省农民的主要副业,而且农民群众已积累了非常丰富的传统经验。因此,为了总结群众经验,发扬科学遗产,改进饲养技术,振兴蜡业,我们希望能引起有关方面的注意和进一步研究,除研究改进白蜡虫的经管技术外,又须注意白蜡在工业上的用途。 白蜡虫的种蜡异地繁荣,在目前已成为自然的形势,而蜡区种虫不能自给,是白蜡业发展上的基本障碍。我们通过本次测验之后,认为我国适于蜡虫(雄虫)繁育的地方很多,如四川、湖南、浙江、安徽、福建、江西、江苏等丘陵地带都可扑虫产蜡,关键问题在于改善运种方法。在目前我国交通运输业已有普遍发展的基础上,只要用航空运种即可在短时间内将种虫运送至全国蜡区。扩大蜡区,增加农民副业收入,发扬我国科学遗产,为国家创造财富,利用益虫为生产服务,在目前已完全有实现的可能。

The effect of soybean phosphatide on toad hearts at higher temperatures(22-30℃) depends upon the duration of perfusion. In the first 2-3 hours there is always a strengthening of contraction, while after 5-10 hours, when the heart gives much feebler contraction due to exhaustion, this beneficial effect of phosphatide tends to disappear. The exhausted heart can, however, be made to improve by simply adding glucose to the perfusion fluid. Promptly the contractility of the heart recovers. Glucose thus, plays an...

The effect of soybean phosphatide on toad hearts at higher temperatures(22-30℃) depends upon the duration of perfusion. In the first 2-3 hours there is always a strengthening of contraction, while after 5-10 hours, when the heart gives much feebler contraction due to exhaustion, this beneficial effect of phosphatide tends to disappear. The exhausted heart can, however, be made to improve by simply adding glucose to the perfusion fluid. Promptly the contractility of the heart recovers. Glucose thus, plays an important role in the nutrition of the exhausted tissue. However in the first 2-3 hours after isolation when the heart is still relatively fresh, the added glucose is apparently not utilized. The consumption of glucose of the exhausted heart is in direct proportion to environmental temperature. In this series of experiments, the rate of consumption of glucose per gram heart tissue per hour is 0.84, 1.45 and 4.05 miligrams at 15-16℃, 22-23℃ and 27-30℃ respectively.

(一)磷脂對在較高室温長期灌流而衰弱的心臟或呈較弱而不持久的興奮作用,或竟無顯明的影響。 (二)葡萄糖在灌流液中的作用視室温與離體時間而定。在較高室温長期灌流而衰竭的心臟,葡萄糖是必要的,它可以維持心肌收縮並被心肌所消耗。如心臟離體時間較短,室温較低,則葡萄糖並非必需。 (三)在較高室温,長期灌流而衰竭的心臟,葡萄糖恢復心臟的搏動並為心肌所消耗。其消耗速率,在15—16℃,22—23℃以及27—30℃,每克心肌各為0.84,1.45,及4.05毫克/小時。本文在沈(?)淇教授指導下写作,特此致謝。

 
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