The result shows that if the PMD is higher than 8ps, eyeopening penalty due to only higherorder PMD will be larger than 2 dB. This demonstrates that the effect of higherorder PMD on the high bitrate digital fiber communication systems is very obvious and cannot be neglected.
The scanned digital optical images of corroded metal surfaces allow studying their morphology and distribution of the corrosion film thickness over the surface.
The digital optical images of the surface inhomogeneous oxide layers are obtained with the aid of the microscope.
The calculations and experiment showed that digital optical images of coated metal surfaces, obtained with a common scanner, allow measuring the layer thickness at high accuracy (down to 1 nm or even less).
The digital optical images obtained with a scanner for a small probed surface spot were processed in order to clarify the pitting nature of the metal dissolution in distilled water and visualize the latent defective metal structure.
Computer digital optical images of a small probed surface site upon digital processing enable us to introduce and estimate parameters of the morphological heterogeneity of the surface thermo-oxide layer, which affect its functional characteristics.