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逻辑词缀
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     The Logic of the Social Relation
     社会关系的逻辑
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     Combinational Logic
     组合逻辑
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     On the Affix of Guanzhong Dialect
     关中方言的词缀
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     Affix or Auxiliary Words
     是词缀还是助词
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The present paper attempts to model the analysis of both Chinese and English existential sentences (ESs) on the pattern of Chomsky抯 generative linguistic theory. Given that the predicate verb in the ES is unaccusative in nature, the explanation of the Case assignment of the postverbal NP, the sole argument in the sentence, perplexes generative grammarians greatly. In the literature, it is claimed that the unaccusative verb, though incapable of assigning objective or accusative Case to its complement, is able...

The present paper attempts to model the analysis of both Chinese and English existential sentences (ESs) on the pattern of Chomsky抯 generative linguistic theory. Given that the predicate verb in the ES is unaccusative in nature, the explanation of the Case assignment of the postverbal NP, the sole argument in the sentence, perplexes generative grammarians greatly. In the literature, it is claimed that the unaccusative verb, though incapable of assigning objective or accusative Case to its complement, is able to assign partitive Case to its logic object, the postverbal NP. In this paper, it is demonstrated that in this connection Belletti抯 (1988) theory of Partitive Case runs into a number of serious difficulties: it runs counter to some of its own predictions, thus leaving some important linguistic facts unexplained, and at the same time it undermines the universality of Burzio?(1986) Generalization of the unaccusative phenomenon across languages. Following Chomsky (1991), we assume that there in English ES is indeed an LF affix, as required by LF, and go further on to assume that there finds in Chinese ES its counterpart a covert expletive LF affix. The contrast can be explained by the fact that Chinese is a pro-drop language while English is a non-pro-drop language. It is further argued that by analyzing the surface subject position of the ES as an empty slot to be filled in by the expletive an LF affix, the Case assignment of the postverbal NP can be given a satisfactory principled explanation. That is, via the Chain formed by the LF affix in the subject position and the trace left as a result of movement, Nominative Case is transmitted from the expletive LF affix to the postverbal NP, as in standard Case transmission theory, and the Case Filter, which requires that all overt NPs be assigned abstract Case, is therefore satisfied. It is worth noting that the mode of explanation proposed in this paper seems maximally plausible because it is applicable to some other relevant linguistic facts, which means a principled account of relevant facts is provided and thus greater generality can be achieved.

鉴于英汉语存现句动词具有非宾格性的特点,如何解释动词后名词组的赋格一直是一个令生成语法学家们十分头痛的问题。一些相关研究主张援用Belletti(1988)的部分格理论加以解释,即动词后名词组可从非宾格动词获取部分格。本文认为部分格理论解释不仅使部分语言事得不到合理解释,而且严重削弱了动词非宾格理论的普遍性,理应放弃。文章基于普遍语法观的一个新的分析机制是,英汉语存现结构同属深层无主语句、原本空缺的主语位置可供动词后名词组的逻辑词缀移位前来享用;由于受不同的屈折体系制约,英语逻辑词缀there在汉语中的对应成分是一个没有物质外壳的空语类成分;移位进入主语位置的逻辑词缀可通过与自己移位后留下的语迹所形成的语链将自己在主语位置上获得的主语格位传递给动词后名词组。这样,英汉语存现句便在新的分析模式下获得了统一的解释。

 
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