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种植史
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Organisms are subject to three types of morphological asymmetry: Directional asymmetry, Antisymmetry and Fluctuating asymmetry, but only the latter is related to the environmental stress acting upon individuals during their developmental. Fluctuating asymmetry (FA), small random differences between left and right, with a low level of heritability, has been widely used as a measure of developmental stability. In this study, we test the levels of FA in populations of cotton bollworn (Helicoverpa armigera, CB)...

Organisms are subject to three types of morphological asymmetry: Directional asymmetry, Antisymmetry and Fluctuating asymmetry, but only the latter is related to the environmental stress acting upon individuals during their developmental. Fluctuating asymmetry (FA), small random differences between left and right, with a low level of heritability, has been widely used as a measure of developmental stability. In this study, we test the levels of FA in populations of cotton bollworn (Helicoverpa armigera, CB) exposed to different stress levels of Bt-transgenic cotton. In 2002, thirteen field populations of CB moth were collected in light traps from four provinces in northern China, where transgenic Bt-cotton had been planted for one to five years. FA of the hind femurs of the light trap catches in response to the stress of Bt cotton was estimated. The results show that twelve of the field populations demonstrated FA, and that there was a tendency for the level of FA to decrease as the period over which Bt-cotton had been grown increased. Pearson's correlation coefficient weighted between levels of FA and history of Bt-cotton growing was -0.77, with this coefficient being highly significant. This trend means that the adaptation of field populations of CB to Bt cotton will increase with increasing exposure to Bt-cotton. The feasibility of FA as an indicator for monitoring the appearance of CB resistance to Bt-cotton is discussed.

波动性不对称 (Fluctuating asymm etry,FA)是指相对于生物两侧对称发育的一种细微的随机偏离 ,通常用来指示生物在外界环境压力下发育的稳定性程度。 2 0 0 2年在我国北方棉区 1 3个具有 1~ 5 a转 Bt基因棉种植史的市、县采集了棉铃虫上灯蛾 ,测定了各点成虫后足腿节的波动性不对称 (Fluctuating asymmetry,FA)。结果表明 ,1 2个采集地的棉铃虫后足腿节均表现出 FA;相关性分析发现 ,各采集点的 FA值与 Bt棉的种植年代间存在着显著的负相关关系 (r=- 0 .77) ,显示出棉铃虫自然种群对 Bt棉的适应性随着 Bt棉种植时间延长而渐增的趋势。讨论了棉铃虫对 Bt棉的适应以及 FA作为棉铃虫田间种群对 Bt棉早期抗性监测指标的可能性

N_2O fluxes over a vegetable-growing season were measured in an outdoor pot experiment to identify key soil parameters affecting N_2O emission.Soil samples in the experiment were collected from seven vegetable fields all with more than 10 years of vegetable cultivation in Jiangsu Province and Shandong Province.The experiment had two treatments,urea fertilizer-free (or CK) and urea application.Measurements showed significant differences in N_2O emission between the soils in either treatment.The total amount of...

N_2O fluxes over a vegetable-growing season were measured in an outdoor pot experiment to identify key soil parameters affecting N_2O emission.Soil samples in the experiment were collected from seven vegetable fields all with more than 10 years of vegetable cultivation in Jiangsu Province and Shandong Province.The experiment had two treatments,urea fertilizer-free (or CK) and urea application.Measurements showed significant differences in N_2O emission between the soils in either treatment.The total amount of N_2O-N emitted during the season ranged from 2.74 to 4.37 mg·pot~(-1) in CK,showing a weak linear results with soil pH value,and NH~+_4-N and NO~-_3-N contents of the soil.Urea application not only enhanced N_2O emission but also expanded the differences in N_2O emission between the soils,increasing the total amount of N_2O-N emitted during the season to the range from 6.39 to 29.38 mg·pot~(-1).Though the urea application rate in the vegetable field was less than that in the wheat field in 2000-2001,N_2O emission from the vegetable soils was not significantly decreased.Soil parameters,such as organic carbon,total nitrogen and C/N ratio were identified factors affecting N_2O emissions from the vegetable and the wheat soils when urea was applied.A further investigation indicated that the conversion coefficient of urea N to N_2O-N is exponentially correlated with soil organic carbon and total nitrogen.

选取7种具有10a以上种植史的菜地土壤, 通过室外盆栽试验研究施尿素条件下影响冬季菜地N2O排放的主要土壤因素。结果表明,不同土壤间N2O排放具有显著差异。对照菜地的季节性N2O N排放总量为2. 74~4. 37mg·盆-1,排放量与土壤本底的铵态氮、硝态氮含量及pH值呈弱线性相关。施尿素不仅促进了N2O的排放,而且加大了土壤间N2O排放的差异,季节性排放总量为6. 39~29. 38mg·盆-1。与2000—2001年麦田相比,虽然菜地施尿素量低于麦地,但是N2O排放量无明显减少,菜地和麦地土壤的N2O排放均与土壤有机碳含量、全氮含量、C/N比值呈显著负相关。此外,施尿素菜地的N2O排放与土壤粘粒含量呈显著负相关,与土壤砂粒含量呈显著正相关。进一步研究表明,化肥氮的N2O N转化系数主要受土壤碳、氮含量的影响。

 
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