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枯季
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  dry season
     The concentrations of DOC and POC during the observation were 1.59±0.21 and 0.91±0.42mg/L, respectively, in which DOC in dry season was higher than that in flood; while POC showed the opposite tendency.
     结果表明,DOC和POC平均浓度分别为1.59±0.21和0.91±0.42mg/L,其中枯季的DOC浓度较洪季高,而POC则呈相反趋势.
短句来源
     The averaged SSC of all the observation stations is 0.69kg/m~3 in dry season and 0.63kg/m~3 in flood season.
     全部站位垂线平均含沙量的平均值枯季为0.69kg/m~3,洪季为0.63kg/m~3。
短句来源
     The runoff in dry season and that in rainy season have remarkable cycles for 2.1 years, and 2.0 years.
     枯季和雨季平均流量具有共同的2.1、2.0年的显著周期。
     The runoff in dry season in 1961, in 1981, and in 1998 changed over from the dry stage to the abundant stage, and that in 1968, and in 1990 changed over from the abundant stage to the dry stage.
     枯季平均流量,1961、1981、1998年从偏枯阶段转入偏丰阶段,1968、1990年从偏丰阶段转入偏枯阶段。
     The concentrations of NO\+-\-3, NH\++\-4 and DIN varied little with seasons, but the concentration of NO\+-\-2 and PO\+\{3-\}\-4 were a little higher in the flood season and lower in the dry season.
     结果表明 :NO-3、NH+4、DIN的浓度随季节变化不明显 ,而NO-2 、PO3-4的浓度是枯季较高、洪季较低 ;
短句来源
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  drought season
     Application of the Linearity Disturbance Model to Predict the Flow of the River Channel in Drought Season
     应用线性扰动模型做枯季河道流量预报
短句来源
     The numerical calculation of the 2-D hydrodynamic characteristic in the Pearl River networks around Guangzhou by Ecomsed model based on the observed data of the flood season in 1999 and the drought season in 2001. The results show that the calculated values of water level、velocity and flux agree well with the observed values, and the Ecomsed model can be used in the hydrodynamic analysis for the works through the river.
     本文利用1999年洪季和2001年枯季的实测资料,通过ECOMSED数学模型对珠江网河广州区域进行数值模拟计算,采用贴体自适应网格技术。 计算结果表明,水位、流速、流量计算值与观测值吻合良好,ECOMSED模型可用于过江工程的水动力分析。
  “枯季”译为未确定词的双语例句
     the total amounts of HCHs were 5.8~20.6ng/L and 13.8~99.7ng/L respectively; and the total amounts of DDTs were 0.52~1.13ng/L and 5.85~9.53ng/L respectively; and the total amounts of other OCPs were 3.36~8.51ng/L and 17.5~61.5ng/L respectively.
     洪季、枯季HCHs总量分别为5.8~20.6ng/L、13.8~99.7ng/L,DDTs总量分别是0.52~1.13ng/L、5.85~9.53ng/L,其它有机氯农药总量分别为3.36~8.51ng/L、17.5~61.5ng/L.
短句来源
     The study shows that the average particle size increases from 6.68 Φ to 7. 05Φ from the flood season to the low-water season, and the clay charge increases from 21.4% to 28.3%, yet the sand charge and the silt charge decreases from 6. 3% and 72. 3% to 4. 9% and 66. 8%.
     分析表明,河口湾洪季悬沙平均粒径为6.68Φ,枯季为7.05Φ; 粘土含量由21.4%增至28.3%,砂和粉砂分别从6.3%和72.3%降为4.9%和66.8%。
短句来源
     The total (particulate plus dissolved phase) concentrations of OCPs in surface water from the Pearl River Artery estuary in both high flow season and low flow season were 9 7ng/L~26 3ng/L and 41 7ng/L~122 5ng/L respectively.
     OCPs的定量分析结果显示 ,洪、枯季珠江干流河口水体中OCPs总量 (颗粒相和溶解相 )分别是 9 7~ 2 6 3ng/L、4 1 7~ 12 2 5ng/L ;
短句来源
     While the average velocity of flood and ebb tide is 69cm/s and 84cm/s at flood season and 79cm/s and 87cm/s at low-water season, the silt sediment in the estuary will re-suspend under the tide control.
     洪季涨潮平均流速为69cm/s,落潮平均流速为84cm/s; 枯季涨潮平均流速为79cm/s,落潮平均流速为87cm/s。
短句来源
     The results showed that the concentrations of nitrate were much higher than those of nitrite and ammonia,which accounted for 92.8%~97.7% and 84.3%~98.4% of dissolved inorganic nitrogen in wet and dry seasons,separately.
     结果表明,长江口水体3种不同形态的溶解无机氮中,以NO3--N含量最高,洪、枯季分别占溶解态无机氮的92.8%~97.7%和84.3%~98.4%.
短句来源
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  dry season
During the dry season, differences in the stomatal conductance, δ13C, and WUE between the control and UV-B treated shrubs were very small; whereas, differences became much greater when soil water stress disappeared.
      
The time range of nighttime sap flux density was longer in the dry season than in the wet season.
      
In the dry season, sap flow velocity had a significant positive correlation with soil temperature and poor correlation with soil moisture; it was the opposite in the rainy season, indicating that precipitation clearly affected sap flow.
      
The abundance and species diversity were higher than those in the dry season (March-April).
      
The distribution of particulate organic carbon (POC) along the lower reaches is similar between the dry season and the flood season in the Yalujiang Estuary, North China.
      
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  drought season
6) Effective scale of human activities on hydrological process in arid land has expanded from separate rivers to all watersheds; from surface water to groundwater; from drought season to flood season; and from single year to several years.
      
Leaf water potentials were neither very negative or considerably different between seasons but stomatal conductance decreased from 236 mmol m-2 s-1 measured during wet period to 100 mmol m-2 s-1 during drought season.
      
Annual precipitation and length of drought season were the main parameters that regulated the presence of Phytophthora species in the chestnut stands.
      
Hydraulically lifted water was estimated to account for 17-81% of the water used during the following day by tree transpiration at the peak of the drought season, i.e., 0.1-14?L?tree-1?day-1.
      


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在年雨量一定的情况下,地质条件对年径流量有重大影响.根据山西省流域内为不同地质、地貌条件代表站的实测资料分析,年雨量与年径流的关系随地质地貌条件不同而不同,同样地质地貌条件下,年径流又随年雨量的不同而不同.在变质岩区,岩石风化带及裂缝发育很浅,底部岩层透水性很小,地下水位高,清水常年不断,年径流系数在平年情况下为30—40%.在砂页岩区,如无特殊构造,地下水多高出河底,清水常流,唯不及变质岩丰富,年径流系数在平年情况下为20%.在石灰岩区,裂缝发育,喀斯特溶洞贯穿其间,水文情况复杂,有时大的集中泉水在该地区出露,地下水高出河床,水量半富,水源不受流域面积的影响,除去集中的溶洞泉水外,年径流系数在平年情况下约为20%;有的地下水位在地表以下数百米,虽同样地貌,但枯季断流,汛期洪水历时不长,年径流系数为8—12%.红土合粘量较多,透水性较弱,蒸发较大,故红土地区年径流系数在平年情况下约为15%左右.黄土地区透水性大,蒸发亦大,故平年年径流系数在士石山区为10%,丘陵及平原区为1—3%.此外,地层构造对年径流有很大影响,在河流穿过断层的地带,有的有大量泉水加入,有的又从断层漏走.本文通过丹河及漳河各干支...

在年雨量一定的情况下,地质条件对年径流量有重大影响.根据山西省流域内为不同地质、地貌条件代表站的实测资料分析,年雨量与年径流的关系随地质地貌条件不同而不同,同样地质地貌条件下,年径流又随年雨量的不同而不同.在变质岩区,岩石风化带及裂缝发育很浅,底部岩层透水性很小,地下水位高,清水常年不断,年径流系数在平年情况下为30—40%.在砂页岩区,如无特殊构造,地下水多高出河底,清水常流,唯不及变质岩丰富,年径流系数在平年情况下为20%.在石灰岩区,裂缝发育,喀斯特溶洞贯穿其间,水文情况复杂,有时大的集中泉水在该地区出露,地下水高出河床,水量半富,水源不受流域面积的影响,除去集中的溶洞泉水外,年径流系数在平年情况下约为20%;有的地下水位在地表以下数百米,虽同样地貌,但枯季断流,汛期洪水历时不长,年径流系数为8—12%.红土合粘量较多,透水性较弱,蒸发较大,故红土地区年径流系数在平年情况下约为15%左右.黄土地区透水性大,蒸发亦大,故平年年径流系数在士石山区为10%,丘陵及平原区为1—3%.此外,地层构造对年径流有很大影响,在河流穿过断层的地带,有的有大量泉水加入,有的又从断层漏走.本文通过丹河及漳河各干支流的计算实例并与实测资料验证,计算误差都在6%以内.初步结果:1.按地质地貌及气象条件来计算年径流量的方法能可靠地确定无资料地区年径流量,并可用来提高年径流等值线图的计算精度.2.本法在干旱而地质地形又很复杂的地区,具有现实意义.3.研究水利水保及森林措施对径流的影响,必须注意地质地貌的代表性.

The Hanjiang storage area of the Danjiangkou Reservoir is situated in the lower reach of the upper Hanjiang River. Naturally, the river flows in mountain gorges in this reach, and the reservoir is consequently of river-type.The Danjiangkou reservoir had been impounded to its normal high level in 1973. During the six-year period of 1973-1980, the inflow discharge was low, the storage level varied in a wide range, and the reservoir had been operated in a low level for a long period of time. Besides, there was...

The Hanjiang storage area of the Danjiangkou Reservoir is situated in the lower reach of the upper Hanjiang River. Naturally, the river flows in mountain gorges in this reach, and the reservoir is consequently of river-type.The Danjiangkou reservoir had been impounded to its normal high level in 1973. During the six-year period of 1973-1980, the inflow discharge was low, the storage level varied in a wide range, and the reservoir had been operated in a low level for a long period of time. Besides, there was the valley geomorphic effect. All of the factors mentioned above exerted a deep influence on the channel changes in the variable backwater zone.According to the analysis of the data collected from the field survey and measurement, the following characteristics of the channel change in the variable backwater zone have been obtained,1.The main factor controlling the change of channel in the variable backwater zone is the reservoir operation, which determines the forms of the deposition and the distribution of the sedimentation, and affects the process of its erosion and deposition.2. The change of channel depends on the process of deposition. The sediment deposited on the river bed at the beginning, and now the cross section is reforming very slowly.3. The fining of bed material composition and the segregation of the sediment size along the stream course are very noticeable.4. The geomorphic conditions, bending, narrow valley and longitudinal sawtoothed profile along the thalweg give a considerable effect on the channel changing.5. The changes of channel intensely affect the flow pattern. Along the stream course, the water level is raised in different degree and the surface slope is reduced. The bars and reefs are submerged and then many local deflecting current, rapids and whirl flow are moderated or even disappeared. As a whole, the flow trends gentle. Some new local flow patterns appear due to the formation of new sand wave movements.6. Every year, the variable backwater zone is subjected to one deposition stage during the flood season and two erosion stages during the level falling period in low flow season and filling the reservoir at the beginning of the flood period respectively. Since Hanjiang storage area is situated in narrow valley with sufficient runoff, steep flood peak and low sediment concentration, the function of the two erosion stages will help to achieve "the long-term operation of the reservoir" , and to erode the pre-stage deposits and thus to reduce the harm from the backwater deposits extending upstream.Finally, this paper discusses some problems of sedimentation in the backwater zone of the Sanxia Reservoir in future.

本文在概述了(1)汉江回水变动区河谷地貌特点及对河道形态的影响,(2)典型的山区河流来水来沙特性,(3)在蓄水后水库调度及淤积分布等三个问题的基础上,分析了建库后汉江干流回水变动区纵横剖面变化,再造床过程中河道形态的演变、年内的冲淤变化及河床地貌等四个方面的问题。由此初步归结出河床演变的几个特点:1.坝前水位的调度是回水变动区河床演变的控制性因素;2.堆积过程是河床演变的主导;3.河床显著细化,泥沙沿程分选强烈;4.库区弯曲狭窄、纵泓剧烈起伏的地质地貌条件对河床变形的影响显著;5.河床变形对水流的影响强烈,同时出现一些新的流态,6.回水变动区每年都经历“汛期淤积、枯季消落冲刷和汛初充水冲刷”的“一淤二冲”的变形过程。最后,简要地讨论了三峡水库库尾泥沙淤积的几个问题。

This paper gave a preliminary analysis of the characteristic and vari ation regularity of runoff of the Yangtze river in low-flow period (from Dec. to Mar.) , and the effects on the quality of the water of the Huang pu river after the intrusion of sea water.Although rich in water resource the Yangtze river hasn't much discharge during the low-flow period. The total runoff in low-flow period occupies only fifteen per cent of the annual total runoff. The mean monthly discharge in low-flow period of normal year...

This paper gave a preliminary analysis of the characteristic and vari ation regularity of runoff of the Yangtze river in low-flow period (from Dec. to Mar.) , and the effects on the quality of the water of the Huang pu river after the intrusion of sea water.Although rich in water resource the Yangtze river hasn't much discharge during the low-flow period. The total runoff in low-flow period occupies only fifteen per cent of the annual total runoff. The mean monthly discharge in low-flow period of normal year of 50% frequency is below 15000 M3/sec. The mean monthly discharge of 75% frequency of dry year in Jan.and Feb, is less than 10000 M3/sec. Salinity varies with the quantity of the flow which comes from upstream. It becomes highly sensitive in river-mouth area when the discharge in Da Tong station is 10000 M3/sec. The salinity in river-mouth area will increase repidly if the discharge in Da Tong station is less than 10000 M3/sec. As a result, serious impacts will happen to the water supply both of Shanghai city and the industrial and agricultural bases in river-mouth area. For the planning of water supply in the Yangtze river basin,it is necessary to keep the discharge through Da Ton station above 15000 M3/sec, or at least not less than 10000 M3/sec.

本文对长江枯季(12—3月)径流的特点、变化规律、河口盐水入侵以及对黄浦江水质的影响等进行了初步分析。 长江水量虽然丰富,但枯季径流并不大,枯季径流一般占年径流总量的15%左右。频率50%的平水年各月平均流量都在15000秒立米以下,频率75%的一般少水年枯季1、2月份的月平均流量不足10000秒立米。河口盐度变化随上游来水多少而异,大通站流量在10000秒立米时河口盐度变化敏感,流量再减少河口盐度将急剧增加,便会严重污染河口和黄浦江水质,影响上海市和河口地区的工农业和城市生活用水。因此,在规划长江流域用水时,应使大通站流量在15000秒立米以上,若有困难,至少不能低于10000秒立米。

 
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