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参考价格     
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  reference price
     The project cost based on the project budget quota is basically the social average price, which can be regarded as the reference price in market competition, but can not amply reflect the real consumption and management standard of the enterprises taking part in the competition.
     以工程预算定额为依据形成的工程造价基本上属于社会平均价格,它可作为市场竞争的参考价格,但不能充分反映参与竞争企业的实际消耗和管理水平。
短句来源
     The Effect of Internal Reference Price and Consumer Characteristics on Offer-value
     内部参考价格与消费者特性对商品价值衡量的影响
短句来源
     Through an analysis of construction cost of the garden projects, the article puts forward the rational reference price of the garden engineering construction.
     通过对园林工程价格构成的分析,提出了园林工程建设较合理的参考价格;
短句来源
     RESULTS&CONCLUSION: A healthy and orderly track for drug price control will be established by coordinating the related government departments , improving price control system, implementing reference price and sole pricing policy for the same drug, and taking the strategy of transparent information and application of common name.
     结果与结论政府相关部门协调一致,完善价格管理体系,同种药品实行参考价格政策和单独定价原则,采取信息透明与药品通用名策略,有助于将我国药品价格管理引入健康有序的轨道。
短句来源
     This paper takes advantage of providing reference price and task sort to put off pressure of load and improve the resource utilization rate, not affecting other factors.
     通过将任务分类和提供资源参考价格的策略,在不影响其它指标的情况下缓解负载压力,提高系统资源利用率。
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  reference pricing
     An Review and Analysis on the Regulation of Reference Pricing
     药品参考价格制度评析
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     This article introduces the principles and practice of seven cost-containment measures (reference pricing,positive and negative lists,patient copayment,direct price controls,drug budget for GPs, OTC drugs reimbursed and generic substitution)taken by the government authorities in European countries and in America- The purposes of these measures are not only to control drug expensiture but also to improve rational use of drugs.
     本文介绍了在欧美国家使用的7种控制药品费用措施(参考价格、药品作用清单、药品部分自费或共同负担费用、调整药品价格、开业医生预算、补偿柜台药品与使用非商标药品)的原理与使用情况。
短句来源
  the reference price
     The project cost based on the project budget quota is basically the social average price, which can be regarded as the reference price in market competition, but can not amply reflect the real consumption and management standard of the enterprises taking part in the competition.
     以工程预算定额为依据形成的工程造价基本上属于社会平均价格,它可作为市场竞争的参考价格,但不能充分反映参与竞争企业的实际消耗和管理水平。
短句来源
     Based on the above discussions, this paper establishes a twostage Cournot oligopoly model to analyze the inner relationships among export firm’s behavior that is to maximize its profit、the export industry’s structure and the reference price of antidumping. Furthermore, it also shows that the government should aim at maximizing the whole export industry’s revenue, and execute a policy for export industry to limit the number of export firms.
     文章建立了两阶段Cournot竞争模型对反倾销威胁下出口企业利润最大化行为与出口产业结构以及反倾销参考价格之间的内在联系机理进行了理论分析,并论证了在反倾销威胁下,政府实施以整个出口产业利润最大化为目标、以间接控制出口企业数量为手段的出口产业政策的必要性和可行性。
短句来源
  “参考价格”译为未确定词的双语例句
     Garments fast quotation system is composed of costing modular, material database modular, reference pricemodular, form modular and system intro modular.
     服装快速报价系统由成本计算模块、面辅料数据库模块、参考价格模块、报表模块和系统简介模块构成,分别为用户提供服装各项成本的计算、面辅料的参考价格、整件服装.
短句来源
     There have been 27 warrants list on the market, which have important significance to our country derivatives market, since the Baoshan Steel Corporation JTB1 listed on the market in August, 2005. However, there have huge differences between the warrants theory prices given by SSE and the market prices.
     自2005年8月宝钢JTB1上市以来,已经有27支权证上市交易,这对于我国发展衍生品市场有着重要的意义。 然而,上交所给出的权证上市参考价格与市场价格之间存在巨大差异,甚至相互背离,看跌权证价格与标的股票价格正相关,这些都违背了权证定价的基本理论。
短句来源
     This paper examines how consumer characteristics and the process by which consumerutilize multiple internal reference prices to evaluate the offer value.
     众多理论与实践研究都证明,消费者的内部参考价格是决定其价格感知和购买行为的核心因素,研究内部参考价格对企业合理定价、开展价格促销都具有重要的意义。
短句来源
     The general quantity of water treatment in main steel enterprises,the main type of water treatment agents,and their referential prices are introduced.
     介绍了主要钢铁企业水处理总量、水处理药剂主要种类、参考价格;
短句来源
     Hereby, we can obtain the reference merit for reasonably confirming the premium in practice.
     这为实践中合理确定保险费提供了参考价格
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  reference price
Furthermore, we explicitly model price and reference price effects and their impact on the attraction of new customers.
      
Its measures included a voluntary contribution from Farmaindustria, a negative list, wholesale and pharmacists margin reductions, generic substitution, a reference price system and price reduction for certain active principles.
      
The Role of Brand Familiarity in Internal Reference Price Formation: An Accessibility-Diagnosticity Perspective
      
This model is used to evaluate the role of brand familiarity and involvement on the formation and use of internal reference price standards.
      
When involvement is high, the effect of brand familiarity on reference price estimates disappears.
      
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  reference pricing
We review information on pricing, reference pricing, promotion of generic drugs, public reimbursement, patients' contributions, and penalties.
      
In 1998, Greece introduced a reimbursement list, and the lowest reference pricing system among the 15 European Union member states with the purpose of controlling the growth of pharmaceutical expenditure.
      
From August 2004 Subsidy reductions to tender prices and consequent reference pricing.
      
Germany's government now proposes to remove this protection of on-patent drugs from reference pricing once again.
      
He also describes the basic principles of the Dutch and Danish reference pricing systems and benchmarks these with the German system.
      
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  the reference price
Around the reference price would be a latitude of price acceptance in which the customer is relatively insensitive to price changes.
      
An important criticism to AD models is their failure to capture dynamics of the reference effect in response to changes in the reference price.
      
As expected, the algorithm price converges towards the reference price.
      
As the leader in the express transportation market, its prices were adopted as the reference price.
      
As discussed further below, manufacturers' price response depends in part on the design of the reference price system.
      
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A factory which has independent management power and produces one kind of product is considered in this paper. The paper discusses the factory how to get the maximum profits through choosing a suitable price and advertisement cost. The paper uses modern control theory, makes goodwill and reference price as state variable, makes advertisement cost and actural price as control variables and gives the dynamic model of the system. The index functional and the optimal control on the basis of maximum principal and...

A factory which has independent management power and produces one kind of product is considered in this paper. The paper discusses the factory how to get the maximum profits through choosing a suitable price and advertisement cost. The paper uses modern control theory, makes goodwill and reference price as state variable, makes advertisement cost and actural price as control variables and gives the dynamic model of the system. The index functional and the optimal control on the basis of maximum principal and optimization methods are given also.

考虑一个具有独立经营权、生产单一产品的工厂,如何选择一个适当的市场价格和广告费用以使企业的收益最大的问题。利用现代控制理论,以商誉(goodwill)和参考价格(referenceprice)作为状态变量,以广告费和实际价格作为控制变量,建立了系统的动态模型,给出了目标泛函J,并利用极大值原理和优化方法求出了最优控制。

This paper presents a summary of the structure,characteristics and working mechanism of different types of digital cameras functioning on the basis of various Charged Couple Device systems,namely:linear array,facial array,scanned system etc. A table of typical digital cameras manufactured by world renewed cameras firms is listed in this paper showing their technical specifications,uses and reference prices.

本文全面阐述了使用电荷耦合器件CCD制作的各种数字式相机的结构和性能特点,以及不同类型的CCD组成的工作原理,包括:线阵CCD、面阵CCD和两者的混合形式一面阵CCD扫描器。附表列有世界著名照相机厂家生产的典型数字式相机的技术性能,用途和参考价格

This paper introduced some strategies and measures used for contfrolling the increasing of drug costs in foreign countries and their effectiveness. These straegies and measares include direct price controls, profit controls, reference price system,GP budget, encourag generics, positive/negative list, patient co-payments and over the counter. From the experiences of foreign countries, it seems that comprehensive policy for the management of the cost of phamaceuticals is necessary for better result.

本文在描述了一些国家药品费用上涨的背景后,介绍了国外控制药品费用的策略和措施以及实施效果,这些策略和措施主要包括:直接价格控制、利润控制、参考价格体系、通科医生预算、鼓励使用普通替代药、药品报销范围、病人共付和非处方药等。从各国的经验来看,只有采取综合的政策手段,才能取得更好的效果。

 
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