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病毒
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  virus
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) integrase is a potential target for anti-HIV therapy.
      
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It corresponds to an epitope without direct equivalence with the virus sequence.
      
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In recent years,a new disease of the foxtail millet (Setaria italica (L.) Beauv.)has been reported to occur in epiphytotic scale in most of the millet growning areasof North China.On account of the brilliant red pigmentation of the infected plant,the disease is generally referred to by the farmers as the red-leaf disease.However,the symptoms on the millet plants varied with different varieties.In general,thecharacteristic symptom exhibited on the "purple-stem" varieties was the the redden-ing of the leaf blade,leaf...

In recent years,a new disease of the foxtail millet (Setaria italica (L.) Beauv.)has been reported to occur in epiphytotic scale in most of the millet growning areasof North China.On account of the brilliant red pigmentation of the infected plant,the disease is generally referred to by the farmers as the red-leaf disease.However,the symptoms on the millet plants varied with different varieties.In general,thecharacteristic symptom exhibited on the "purple-stem" varieties was the the redden-ing of the leaf blade,leaf sheath and spike,particularly the bristle,while that onthe "green-stem" varieties was the yellowing of the leaf blade.In all instances,thediscoloration was usually accompanied by shortening of internode,stunting of thewhole plant.wrinkling of leaf surface,slight waviness of leaf margin,deformationof spike and underdevelopment of root systems.Plants infected at an early stagewere severely stunted and on heads were produced. It has been demonstrated that the red-leaf disease of the foxtail millet was causedby a virus readily transmitted by at least three different species of grain-infestingaphids:corn aphid,Rhopalostiphum maidis Fitch;grain aphid,Macrosiphum granari-um Kirby;and green-bug,Toxoptera graminum Rond.Tests with non-viruliferouscorn aphid eliminated the possibility of direct aphid injury as the cause of the disease. ??The virus was not transmissible by mechanical inoculation,by seeds nor through thesoil. Studies on the mode of transmission of red-leaf virus by corn aphid indicatedthat the virus was persistent in its insect vector and could infect in succession aseries of at least 27 tested millet seedlings.The aphid was unable to acquire thevirus in a 5-minute feedling period on the virus source but was able to pick up thevirus in 10-minute period.The 8-hour acquisition feeding period was optimum forthis aphid.The testing feeding period was found to be not more than 5 minutesand a 4-hour period of confinement on the diseased plant was ample for the aphidto cause maximum infection.Attempts to transmit the virus with cotton aphid.Aphisgossypii Gloner peach aphid,Aphis persicae Sehult and soybean aphid,Aphis glycinesMats,have given negative results.The incubation period for symptoms of the red-leaf virus in foxtail millet ranged from 10 to 32 days with the model period beingbetween 14 to 20 days. Under natural conditions,certain cultivated cereals and grass weeds showed thesymptoms resembling the red-leaf disease of foxtail millet.Among them,were ZeaMays L.,Panicum miliaceum L.,Setaria lutescens (Weigel) Hubb.,S.viridis (L.)Beauv.,Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop.Echinochloa crusgalli (L.) Roem.,Eragrostiscilianensis (All.) Link,E.pilosa (L.) Beauv.,Arundinella anomala Steud,Spodiopogonsibiricus (Steud.) Trin.,Bothruochloa ischaemum (L.) Keng.,Capillipedium parviflor-um (R.Br.) Stapf and Poa practensis L..Artificial inoculation with the corn aphidproved that the first six named plant species,including the two cereals,were susce-ptible to the red-leaf virus and they produced,in all cases,the typical symptoms.Tests with the rest sexen grass weeds are in progress. The results of disease control experiments by timely spraying with an insecticide,E605,under field conditions were inconsistent.Among the 349 foxtail millet varie-ties of foxtail millet examined in the experimental field,nine of them were foundto be highly torelant to and suffered only very slightly from the attack of the red-leaf virus.These varieties were,however,succeptible in aphid transmission experiments. Available evidences point to the conclusion that the red-leaf virus of the foxtail millet herin reported is quite different from all the previously described cereal viruses.Among the cereal virus that closely resembles the red-leaf virus is the yellow-dwarfvirus reported by Oswald tnd Hauston.These two viruses are similar in the follow-ing respects:both are transmissible by the same species of aphids (Rhopalosiphummaidis,Microsiphum graminium andToxoptera granarium) and neither virus can betransferred mechanically.But they differ strikingly from each other in their hostranges.According to Oswald and Hauston,there were 19 of 55 grasses tested thatappeared to be immune from the yellow-dwarf virus.Digitaria sanguinalis,Echino-chloa crus-galli Setaria viridis and Zea Mays were among the immune hosts.On thecontary,all these four gramineous plants were found to be extremely susceptible tothe red-leaf virus both under natural condition and in artificial inoculation experi-ments.Accordingly,the red-leaf,a persistent aphid borne virus affecting the foxtailmillet,is herein reported as a new virus of the cereals.

小米红叶病是在我国华北分布普遍和为害严重的一种小米病害。病害的症状,在紫杆的小米品种上面,主要的是叶片、叶鞘和穗变紅;在青杆品种上面是叶片黄化。無論如何,紫杆和青杆品种病株除变色外,都可随伴各种畸形,包括植株矮化、叶面绉折、叶綠波状、穗变形和根系發育不良。紅叶病是一个借蚜虫傳播的病毒病害衩籽痢⒙蟪す苎梁吐蠖硌辆軅鞑ゲ『?其中以玉米蚜为最重要。曾經测定玉米蚜在病株上面吸食获得病毒和在健株上面吸食所需最短的时間;带毒玉米蚜的数目和傳病效能的关系谐嵫梁腿舫婢軅鞑 S锰已痢⒋蠖寡梁兔扪羵鞑∥椿竦谜慕Y果。紫杆品种感病后,仅表皮細胞、叶毛細胞和泡状細胞变成紅化,其下层的組織不紅化。叶綠素逐漸消失,但消失过程相当的慢。在病害最末期,維管束內的靱皮細胞少数的坏死,导水管內可能充塞有棕色胶質物,其它細胞無显著的变化。檢查病叶未發現有細胞內含体。用带毒蚜虫作人工接种,証知小米紅叶病病毒能侵染玉米和黍。这两种作物在自然环境下均發生紅叶病。在自然环境下,有以下的禾谷类杂草紅化:金狗尾、青狗尾、馬唐、大画眉草、画眉草、稗、野牯草、大油芒、白羊草、細柄草和六月禾。用玉米蚜作人工接种証明稗...

小米红叶病是在我国华北分布普遍和为害严重的一种小米病害。病害的症状,在紫杆的小米品种上面,主要的是叶片、叶鞘和穗变紅;在青杆品种上面是叶片黄化。無論如何,紫杆和青杆品种病株除变色外,都可随伴各种畸形,包括植株矮化、叶面绉折、叶綠波状、穗变形和根系發育不良。紅叶病是一个借蚜虫傳播的病毒病害衩籽痢⒙蟪す苎梁吐蠖硌辆軅鞑ゲ『?其中以玉米蚜为最重要。曾經测定玉米蚜在病株上面吸食获得病毒和在健株上面吸食所需最短的时間;带毒玉米蚜的数目和傳病效能的关系谐嵫梁腿舫婢軅鞑 S锰已痢⒋蠖寡梁兔扪羵鞑∥椿竦谜慕Y果。紫杆品种感病后,仅表皮細胞、叶毛細胞和泡状細胞变成紅化,其下层的組織不紅化。叶綠素逐漸消失,但消失过程相当的慢。在病害最末期,維管束內的靱皮細胞少数的坏死,导水管內可能充塞有棕色胶質物,其它細胞無显著的变化。檢查病叶未發現有細胞內含体。用带毒蚜虫作人工接种,証知小米紅叶病病毒能侵染玉米和黍。这两种作物在自然环境下均發生紅叶病。在自然环境下,有以下的禾谷类杂草紅化:金狗尾、青狗尾、馬唐、大画眉草、画眉草、稗、野牯草、大油芒、白羊草、細柄草和六月禾。用玉米蚜作人工接种証明稗、青狗尾、金狗尾、馬唐、六月禾和大油芒均感染小米紅叶病病毒。其它紅化杂草和接种試驗,正在进行中。紅叶病病毒对小米植株所产生的影响,因植株發育的阶段不同而輕重有所差异,植株感病愈早病害愈剧烈。用杀虫剂E605在田間噴射小米防治紅叶病,未能表現药剂有防病的效能,在田間观察349个品种,选得9个高度耐病和农艺性状优良的品种。抗病选种可能是当前防治小米紅叶病最有效的防治措施。根据病原的傳染方法,寄主范围和所表現的症状,小米紅叶病病毒和以往所报道的禾本科植物的病毒病害的病毒均不相同,因此它是禾谷类作物的一个新的病毒

This is a further study on the "Kwuting" of Chinese cabbage which has beendemonstrated to be caused by a strain of turnip virus (Turnip virus 1 Hoggan etJohnson).Isolates from the "Kwuting" of Brassica pekinensis,mosaic of B.chinensis,of B.oleracea var.capitata and of Raphnus sativus var.longipinnatus are mixed invarious proportions and inoculated to the Chinese cabbage seedlings.All mixturesproduce the same symptoms and the same degree of severity as Kwuting virusinoculated alone.Therefore in pathogenicity...

This is a further study on the "Kwuting" of Chinese cabbage which has beendemonstrated to be caused by a strain of turnip virus (Turnip virus 1 Hoggan etJohnson).Isolates from the "Kwuting" of Brassica pekinensis,mosaic of B.chinensis,of B.oleracea var.capitata and of Raphnus sativus var.longipinnatus are mixed invarious proportions and inoculated to the Chinese cabbage seedlings.All mixturesproduce the same symptoms and the same degree of severity as Kwuting virusinoculated alone.Therefore in pathogenicity they can only be grouped under thesame strain. When the air temperature in greenhouse is maintained at an optimum (around28℃) of the disease development,a variation of the soil temperature (15°,20%25° and 30℃) by using the modified Wisconsin soil tanks doas influence the degreeof expression of symptoms.However,the influence is more significant in the caseof a susceptible variety as Chiaochowpai,and less in the cases of a tolerant varietyas Chinpaikou and a variety of Brassica chinensis L. During the course of the development of the Chinese cabbage plant,an infec-tion which takes place at the early stage (especially in the stape prior to 7-8leaves),causes far more severe symptoms than in the case of late infections(usually after the starting of heading).This effect is also more pronounced inthe case of a susceptible variety "Chioachowpai". Varietal tests for the resistance to "Kwuting" are crrried out both at Pekingand Hsingchen (Northeast China).According to the results of a two-years-test,it is revealed that four varieties,namely Shangtung No.1,No.2,KungchulingTamayi and Hsingchen Tamayi are highly resistant both at Peking and Hsingchen,whereas a tolerant variety Chinpaikuo shows high tolerance at Peking,but highsusceptibility at Hsingchen.Some commercial varieties which are generally cultiva-ted in north-eastern provinces,such as Chiaochowpai,Heitaoweng and Pantsoutsaiare all highly susceptible.

白菜孤丁病毒与油青菜花叶病毒、甘兰花叶病毒及蘿卜花叶病毒经各种配合的混合接种后,在症状土及發病率上沒有显著的差异,说明它們不但是同一个毒种,而且可能是同一个毒株。土壤温度影响白菜弧丁的發病,土温在30℃时,高度感病的胶州白菜的發病几乎比在15℃的土温高出一倍。但这种关系在耐病的青白口上,以及感病的另一菜种油青菜(Brassica Chinensis L.)上,則不显著。白菜在幼苗期受侵较后期受侵的發病严重,但这种影响也是以高度感病的品种为显著,例如胶州白菜在8月29日接种的比在10月23日接种的病情指数高一倍多。这种关系对耐病的青白口及高度抗病的山东二号说来,在北京田间情况下不明显。在北京和辽宁兴城两地經1954及1955两年的比較試驗,选出了高度抗孤丁病的山东一号及二号、公主岭的大麻叶及兴城的大麻叶等4个品种。北京的青白口在北京地区是一个耐病的品种,但在兴城則失去其耐病性。山东著名的胶州白菜是一个高度感病的品种,其他如东北的半矬菜在兴城、徐水的白帮核桃纹在北京都是高度感病的。

In the vicinity of Canton mosaic is one of the most important diseases on

广州郊区、新会县荷塘乡及南海县佛山市郊的蕪菁、芥菜、白菜、菜心和蘿卜等十字花科蔬菜普遍感染花叶病.根据寄主范围、病状及病毒的物理性質,这种花叶病經鑒定系由甘藍病毒2号(Brassica virus 2)的2个品系及黃瓜病毒1号((Cucumis virus1)的2个品系所致。在屬于甘藍病毒2号的两个品系中,一个类似芜菁花叶病毒(Chamber-lain,1936)(簡称“芜菁毒系”),另一个类似油菜花叶病毒(凌立与楊演1940,1941)(簡称“油菜毒系”)。在屬于黄瓜病毒1号的两个品系中,一个对十字花科蔬菜完全缺乏侵染力,而另一个有微弱的侵染力。这些病毒品系在上述十字花科蔬菜上所引致的花叶病状都很相像,很难分辨. 根据在鑒別寄主(烟草、心叶烟和白菜)上的病状表現,少量(77个罹病标本)的試驗結果說明甘藍病毒2号的“油菜毒系”类在本区發生最多,分布最广。甘藍病毒2号的“芜菁毒系”类和黄瓜病毒1号类(包括2个毒系)發生較少,前者的分布較广,在广州郊区和新会县俱有發現,后者只在广州郊...

广州郊区、新会县荷塘乡及南海县佛山市郊的蕪菁、芥菜、白菜、菜心和蘿卜等十字花科蔬菜普遍感染花叶病.根据寄主范围、病状及病毒的物理性質,这种花叶病經鑒定系由甘藍病毒2号(Brassica virus 2)的2个品系及黃瓜病毒1号((Cucumis virus1)的2个品系所致。在屬于甘藍病毒2号的两个品系中,一个类似芜菁花叶病毒(Chamber-lain,1936)(簡称“芜菁毒系”),另一个类似油菜花叶病毒(凌立与楊演1940,1941)(簡称“油菜毒系”)。在屬于黄瓜病毒1号的两个品系中,一个对十字花科蔬菜完全缺乏侵染力,而另一个有微弱的侵染力。这些病毒品系在上述十字花科蔬菜上所引致的花叶病状都很相像,很难分辨. 根据在鑒別寄主(烟草、心叶烟和白菜)上的病状表現,少量(77个罹病标本)的試驗結果說明甘藍病毒2号的“油菜毒系”类在本区發生最多,分布最广。甘藍病毒2号的“芜菁毒系”类和黄瓜病毒1号类(包括2个毒系)發生較少,前者的分布較广,在广州郊区和新会县俱有發現,后者只在广州郊区5个相邻的乡村發現。

 
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