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西洋文化
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  western cultures
     The Influence of the Western Cultures on the History of China
     试论西洋文化在中国历史上的影响
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     This paper reviewed the characteristics of Qing furniture and the input of foreign cultures, analyzed the objective and subjective reasons why Qing furniture was influenced by the western cultures, and then classified three styles of influence, namely the overpass style, the cocktail style and the mixed liquid of salt and sugar style.
     本论文从清代家具自身发展的状况及西洋文化输入的历史现实入手,分析了清代家具接受西洋影响的背景和主客观原因,并根据西洋文化对清代家具不同层面的影响,划分三种影响形式,即立交桥式、鸡尾酒式和盐糖水式。
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  “西洋文化”译为未确定词的双语例句
     The Study of Western Influence on Qing Furniture
     西洋文化对清代家具影响的研究
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     The purpose of the paper is to describe the variety of Chinese modern culture and further explain the importance and realistic significance of cultural absorbing and communication to a country or a nation.
     本文将从西洋文化在汉、魏晋、唐、元、明、清以及近代各个历史时期的传入情况及产生的影响作一论述,从而揭示中国历史文化的多元性,进而阐释文化的吸收与交流对一个国家、一个民族的重要性和现实意义。
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     Sichuan is on the cross point of Southeast Buddhist Culture, Han Culture and West Culture.
     四川处于东南亚佛教文化、汉文化、西洋文化的交叉点上。
     Based on the above exploration formed a dialectical understanding towards the western influences on Qing furniture: on the one hand, the subjective efforts made by Qing furniture to get a better development by accepting western influences should be acknowledged, and the fact that the vitality of Qing furniture determined the differences in accepting western influences in different period of time should not be denied;
     在以上研究的基础上,形成对清代家具接受西洋文化影响这一客观事实的辩证认识:一方面肯定清代家具为寻求自身发展而吸收外来文化的主观努力,同时强调指出清代家具自身生命力在接受西洋文化影响的不同阶段的差异及其与清代家具式微的关系;
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     Ren BoNian's flower and bird paintings attachedimportance to the tradition and absorbed the essence of folk culture and western culture, made great breakthrough in composition, modeling and colorsand had significance of carrying on the past and opening a way for future.
     任伯年的花鸟画注重传统,吸收民间文化和西洋文化精华,在构图、造型、色彩和表现生活等方面都有很大的突破和创新,具有继往开来的价值和意义。
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     Hospital culture is an important position in hospital.
     文化
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     Culture
     文化
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     Western opera is the rarity of the world culture.
     西洋歌剧是世界文化的瑰宝。
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     The Influence of the Western Cultures on the History of China
     试论西洋文化在中国历史上的影响
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     Rhododendron×hybridum
     西洋杜鹃
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  western cultures
The importance of initiative can be clearly seen by studying non-western cultures.
      
The inhibiting role of some traditional cultures may be a key to the social stratification than many western cultures, including the U.S., now face.
      
The results were discussed within the context of findings from Western cultures.
      
Common factors in Western cultures do not obtain in local culture, which provides other objects for morbidfears in predisposed individuals.
      
Eating disorders are most prevalent in the Western cultures where food is in abundance and for females attractiveness is equated with thinness.
      
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Liming is the most unique political economist in Japan's late Jianghu period.He urged Japan to abandon the traditional influence of Chinese thought and culture and to adopt instead the accomplishments of Western civilization.Although his theories of social order in particular can be traced back to Confucianism,he has been heralded as the pioneering theorist who effected the paradigm shift in Japan's orientation from traditional China to the modem West,first influencing Japan's political and economic value...

Liming is the most unique political economist in Japan's late Jianghu period.He urged Japan to abandon the traditional influence of Chinese thought and culture and to adopt instead the accomplishments of Western civilization.Although his theories of social order in particular can be traced back to Confucianism,he has been heralded as the pioneering theorist who effected the paradigm shift in Japan's orientation from traditional China to the modem West,first influencing Japan's political and economic value system and ultimately Japanese society as a whole.

本多利明是日本江户时代后期颇具特色的经世学家 ,他以独特的风土史观为依据 ,力说日本应摆脱传统的中国思想文化的影响 ,努力接受西洋的文明成果。他的具有近代合理主义和机械唯物主义倾向的政治经济主张 ,使日本学术界将他尊为日本接受西方思想文化的先驱。但是利明极具近代特色的经世主张实际上仍与传统儒学有着内在的思想关联 ,利明面对西洋文明的挑战 ,以独自的方式完成了从中国文化到西洋文化的价值转向过程 ,而这也正是日本社会从中国文化到西洋文化的价值转向的写照

We have in this paper the traditional cognition of sakoku (to close the country to the outside world) during the Edo period of Japan to be recognited by checking with the historical facts. The aim of sakoku policy carried out by the shogunate at Edo was but to eradicate the incoming of Catholicism. To think the policy of banning western books by Tokugawa shogunate a key link in sakoku system for resisting the western culture is getting it wrong. To take a good view on the Edo period, we find that a large...

We have in this paper the traditional cognition of sakoku (to close the country to the outside world) during the Edo period of Japan to be recognited by checking with the historical facts. The aim of sakoku policy carried out by the shogunate at Edo was but to eradicate the incoming of Catholicism. To think the policy of banning western books by Tokugawa shogunate a key link in sakoku system for resisting the western culture is getting it wrong. To take a good view on the Edo period, we find that a large amount of western books spread in Japan, only 48 books concerning Catholicism were banned, and a Rangaku (Dutch studies) movement initiated, the Japanese learned modern science and social thoughts from the western countries. In all the Edo period, Japan maintained the communications with the outside world and absorbed modern western culture extensively except the Catholicism which was banned. The traditional assertion that Japan shut herself up in Edo period hinders the scholars to give an objective and comprehensive appraisal of the Period.

“江户锁国论”在日本史学界流传已久 ,然而这种表述并不符合历史事实。江户幕府“锁国”的目标仅仅在于铲除危害其统治的天主教信仰。关于德川幕府的禁书政策是“锁国体制”下全面抵制西洋文化的重要一环的说法也是一种误解。历史事实是 ,在江户时代 ,除与天主教有关的汉译西书 4 8种之外 ,有关西方的书籍大量流入日本 ,从而促发了日本人学习西方近代科学和社会思想的兰学运动。江户时代 ,除抵制天主教之外 ,不但没有割断与世界的联系 ,而且吸收了大量的西方近代文化。“江户锁国论”的传统认识影响了人们对江户时代整体评价的客观性

Due to his dlifferent life and constant contact with Western Cultures, Cao Yin (also named Lian Ting) came to know more about western science and Catholic theology and began to take great enterest in them. He had collected 57 different kinds of books on western science and philosophy, His open and tolerable attitude towards western cultures had ererted great influence on Cao xue Qing's writing of "Drean of red Masion".

曹寅 (楝亭 )在西学东渐中特殊的人生际遇 ,使他对西洋科学和天主教神学有了较多的了解 ,并产生了浓厚的兴趣。其收藏的西洋科学和神哲学书籍达 5 7种之多。曹寅这种对待西洋文化的开放态度 ,对曹雪芹及其《红楼梦》产生了重要影响

 
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