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封建教化
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     The Negative Influence of the Feudal Morals on School Moral Education
     论封建道德内涵和教化模式对学校德育的负面影响
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     Cultivation and Purification
     教化与净化
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     The Educational Function of Philosophy
     哲学的教化功能
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     The author suggests the key to clearing up the moralization be to destroy the domination of feudal seigneur.
     要消解话语霸权下的道德教化关键在于摧毁封建专制统治
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     Analysis on the Feudal Patriarch System and Clan Authority
     封建家长制及族权浅析
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Just as the reforms in economy and ideology in the Ming dynasty, the attitude toward chastity in "Three Stories" ( Stories to Awaken Men; Stories to Enlighten Men; Stories to Warn Men) and "Amazing Stories" had it's enlightened meaning. In these novels chastity or virginity were no longer regarded as the most important principle in a woman's married life. It was highly advocated that chastity should be integrated with love and women should break through the shackle when seeking their happiness. Though there...

Just as the reforms in economy and ideology in the Ming dynasty, the attitude toward chastity in "Three Stories" ( Stories to Awaken Men; Stories to Enlighten Men; Stories to Warn Men) and "Amazing Stories" had it's enlightened meaning. In these novels chastity or virginity were no longer regarded as the most important principle in a woman's married life. It was highly advocated that chastity should be integrated with love and women should break through the shackle when seeking their happiness. Though there was enough sympathy and understanding towards women victims, there was still a shortage of rational criticism and reflection. Chastity remained to be part of the ethic morality for women and fell far behind of the modern humanitarianism and feminism.

与明代的经济发展、思想变革相同 ,“三言”“二拍”的女性贞节观具有进步意义。在作品中 ,贞节已不是女性婚姻生活的最高准则。作品提倡贞节与情爱的统一 ,主张以追求幸福突破贞节的枷锁。对于贞节观念的受害者 ,作品既有同情也有赞颂 ,却缺少理性的批评和反思 ,贞节仍然作为一种女性的人生价值和社会的伦理原则被尊崇。“三言”“二拍”的贞节观念更大程度地停留在封建教化上 ,人道主义的、男女平等的现代观念还有一定的距离。

Gao Ming, the playwright in the Yuan Dynasty, creates an "Absolutely loyal and filial" hero Cai Bo-jie in his play Pipa Ji, intending to advocate the morality of loyalty and filial piety and achieve the purpose of feudal education. However, when Cai Bojie practices his filial morality according to the code of ethics, he comes across the predicament——his parents die of hunger. In front of the "unfilial" reality, he is set as the model of filial piety by the emperor, from which, we can see that "the loyalty and...

Gao Ming, the playwright in the Yuan Dynasty, creates an "Absolutely loyal and filial" hero Cai Bo-jie in his play Pipa Ji, intending to advocate the morality of loyalty and filial piety and achieve the purpose of feudal education. However, when Cai Bojie practices his filial morality according to the code of ethics, he comes across the predicament——his parents die of hunger. In front of the "unfilial" reality, he is set as the model of filial piety by the emperor, from which, we can see that "the loyalty and filial piety" are in fact self-contradictory.

元代剧作家高明在南戏《琵琶记》中塑造了“全忠全孝”的主人公蔡伯喈,力图宣扬忠孝节义的道德观念,达到进行封建教化的目的。然而,当蔡伯喈依据伦理纲常准则去践行孝道时,却在践行过程中遭遇窘境———蔡家父母最终冻馁而死。面对“不孝”的现实,他恰恰又成为皇帝旌表孝义的典范,获得“一门旌表”的大团圆结局。可见,封建统治阶级标榜的“忠孝节义”其实是自相矛盾的,蔡伯喈行孝的困境正说明封建社会的所谓“孝”实际上是皇权绝对支配下“忠”的附属品,从而揭示了作者文化心理结构与现实的冲突。

The rural society is a foundation on which are based the state taxes and social peace of the regime of Qing Dynasty.Ruling of the rural society resorts to such powers as the political power entrusted by the Bao-Jia System,the clan power principally based on blood relationship,the gentry power derved from the monopoly of intelligence in rural society,and the feudal power of education originated from the royal power,all of which squeeze and depress civil rights and constitute the royal power,all of which squeeze...

The rural society is a foundation on which are based the state taxes and social peace of the regime of Qing Dynasty.Ruling of the rural society resorts to such powers as the political power entrusted by the Bao-Jia System,the clan power principally based on blood relationship,the gentry power derved from the monopoly of intelligence in rural society,and the feudal power of education originated from the royal power,all of which squeeze and depress civil rights and constitute the royal power,all of which squeeze and depress civil rights and constitute the traditional features of the local administration of rural society in Qing Dynasty.

乡村社会是清代国家的基础。封建国家两个最主要的追求:赋税和安宁,都落实在乡村。清代乡村的治理主要依靠这样几种权力和权威:以保甲制为载体的官权、基于血缘关系的族权、以对乡村知识的垄断而形成的绅权和源于皇权的封建教化权。在上述诸权的合治下,民生低下,民权被严重压抑以至于基本不存在。这一切构成了清代乡村治理的传统特征。

 
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