When other parameters are the same,with the steel ratio and the yield strength of steel increasing,the confinement effect of columns is strengthened,and the ultimate strength and the ductility of columns grow.

This means concrete filled steel tube arch model was simulated by fibre element and based on this presumption,steel tube and concrete are binded and the restriction of steel tube within the concrete is included in stress-strain relation.

The confinement effect of the PS spheres template on the growth of ZnO nanorods and the influence of sodium citrate on the crystal growth of ZnO had been studied.

The longitudinal optical phonons undergo a low-frequency shift upon increasing laser excitation energy (2.54-2.71 eV) because of the confinement effect in small-sized quantum dots, which dominate resonant Raman scattering.

For the CsPbCl3 microcrystals, a quantum-confinement effect is detected, which reveals itself as a decrease in the lifetime of the free exciton luminescence.

Quantum confinement effect in the vibrational spectrum of CdSxSe1-x quantum dots in a fluorophosphate glass matrix

The asymmetry of the lines of the fundamental modes of nanocrystals is experimentally observed in the region of lattice vibrations, which is interpreted as a quantum confinement effect.

In a moist environment, especially when higher content of chloride ion present, the conventional concrete constrained by steel stirrups or steel tubes can be easily deteriorated due to the corrosion of steel. In order to solve the problem of corrosion, the composite reinforced concrete is being developed. In this research, the axial\|compressed concrete column constrained by fiber composite was studied experimentally. The results indicated that the constraint of glass\|fiber composite tube is very effective....

In a moist environment, especially when higher content of chloride ion present, the conventional concrete constrained by steel stirrups or steel tubes can be easily deteriorated due to the corrosion of steel. In order to solve the problem of corrosion, the composite reinforced concrete is being developed. In this research, the axial\|compressed concrete column constrained by fiber composite was studied experimentally. The results indicated that the constraint of glass\|fiber composite tube is very effective. The mechanical property is similar to that of steel tubular concrete column. The constraint of carbon\|fiber composite hoop is also obvious. The ultimate load of column increase steadily with the spacing of carbon\|fiber composite hoop decreases. Its cost is less than composite tubular concrete column. It can eliminate the formwork and is convenient for construction as compared to spiral steel stirrups confined concrete column.

The ultimate bearing capacity load of two concrete filled steel tube(CFST) models is calculated,where the non-linearity has been considered.This means concrete filled steel tube arch model was simulated by fibre element and based on this presumption,steel tube and concrete are binded and the restriction of steel tube within the concrete is included in stress-strain relation.The structure is divided into sub-element which can reflects the change of stiffness along the length of element exactly.Two programs are...

The ultimate bearing capacity load of two concrete filled steel tube(CFST) models is calculated,where the non-linearity has been considered.This means concrete filled steel tube arch model was simulated by fibre element and based on this presumption,steel tube and concrete are binded and the restriction of steel tube within the concrete is included in stress-strain relation.The structure is divided into sub-element which can reflects the change of stiffness along the length of element exactly.Two programs are compiled,one program treats the ultimate bearing capacity load of CFST in plane considering geometrical and structural non-linearity and the other program treats the ultimate bearing capacity load of CFST in space considering non-linearity. In the latter program,calculating model is based on sub-element,where the element stiffness matrix is made up of the sub-element stiffness matrix and the remaining force of node in element consists of the remaining force of node in sub-element.It is a method in which the structure is divided into NELEM element and every element is divided into ND sub-element,despite the influence of geometry factor,and its calculating precision is equal to other method in which the structur is divided into NELEM×ND element.The results from the old element are compared with the experimental data and it shows the programming procedure is correct.Based on the above, the influence of parameter such as restriction coefficient and the intensity of concrete on the ultimate bearing capacity load has been analysed and it provides references for engineers.

The special ultimate bearing capacity of an x-type double-rib arch and a parallel double-rib arch was calculated with consideration of material nonlinearity. In the calculation, fiber element model, which assumed that the steel tube and concrete are completely cemented, was used to analyze the concrete-filled steel tubular arch structure. The skein function of steel tube to core concrete was reflected in one dimension strainstress curve of the concrete. For different stiffness of individual points of element...

The special ultimate bearing capacity of an x-type double-rib arch and a parallel double-rib arch was calculated with consideration of material nonlinearity. In the calculation, fiber element model, which assumed that the steel tube and concrete are completely cemented, was used to analyze the concrete-filled steel tubular arch structure. The skein function of steel tube to core concrete was reflected in one dimension strainstress curve of the concrete. For different stiffness of individual points of element in material nonlinearity analysis, a nonlinearity finite limit element program was prepared assuming small element as substructure. In the program, calculation model was based on sub-element. For example, element stiffness matrix was composed of sub-element stiffness matrixes and residual force of element node was composed of residual forces of sub-element nodes. As a result, the structure could be easily re-divided and the order of nonlinear equations be greatly reduced by changing sub-element number only. In addition, the effect of transverse brace number on structure special ultimate bearing capacity was analyzed, based on validation of the program with model test results.