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  hepatitis b
This study evaluates the survival outcomes of patients who underwent living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT) using right lobe liver grafts for fulminant liver failure due to hepatitis B infection.
      
Expression and Characterization of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen in Transgenic Potato Plants
      
Transgenic potato plants expressing the gene of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) under the control of the double promoter of 35S RNA of cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV 35SS) and the promoter of patatin gene of potato tubers have been obtained.
      
The molecular weight of HBsAg peptide was approximately 24 kD, which is in agreement with the size of the major protein of the envelope of hepatitis B virus.
      
Therefore, as well as in recombinant HBsAg-yeast cells, assembling of HBsAg monomers into immunogenic aggregates takes place in HBsAg-transgenic potato, which can be used as a source of recombinant vaccine against hepatitis B virus.
      
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Transfer factor (TP) is a dialysable (ultrafilterable) extract of sensitised leukocytes. It transfers cellular immunity from a skin test positive donor to a skin test negative recipient. Currently TF is recognized as one of the most potent immunological reagents. In this paper the detailed method for preparation of transfer factor from normal blood bank donors has been described and some physico-chemical and biological properties of the TF preparations have been examined. The production of TF is briefly as follows:...

Transfer factor (TP) is a dialysable (ultrafilterable) extract of sensitised leukocytes. It transfers cellular immunity from a skin test positive donor to a skin test negative recipient. Currently TF is recognized as one of the most potent immunological reagents. In this paper the detailed method for preparation of transfer factor from normal blood bank donors has been described and some physico-chemical and biological properties of the TF preparations have been examined. The production of TF is briefly as follows: After separation of the plasma (for plasma products), the buffy coats are harvested and pooled. The contaiminating red blood cells are disrupted by tris buffered or isotonic NH_4Cl solution. The pooled leukocytes having been washed iwice with cold normal saline are then alternately frozen and thawed ten times with dry ice in acetone and a 37℃ water bath. The cell lysate is placed in dialysis tubing and dialysed in the cold for 36~48 hours against running pyrogenfree deionized water. The dialysate is lyophilized. The yellowish white powder is saved and redissolved in the desired volume of pyrogen-free deionized water, and passed through a Seitz filter (EKS). 2ml of the sterile TF solution (equivalent to the dialysate of 4×10~8 leukocytes) are placed in each ampoule. The final product is stored at -20℃.The TF preparation is protein-free as determined by protein precipitating reagents. It contains ca. 148μg of peptides and 14μg of ribose per mg of dry powder. The ultraviolet absorption curve gives a peak at 250~251nm. Adenine, guanine and uracil are present in the paper chromatogram of the TF acid hydrolysate. Silica- gel thin layer chromatography reveals four spots stained with ninhydrin. Sephadex G-25 filtration gives reproducibly a characteristic elution pattern yielding 3 main peaks and several small peaks with many of the eluted peaks beyond the total volume of the column. The results of animal experiments show that the TF preparations are non-toxic, non-anaphylactic and non-antigenic.So far over 160 patients (variously afflicted with herpes zoster, chronic hepatitis B, systemic lupus erythematosus, primary carcinoma of the liver, carcinoma of the lung and leukemia) have been treated with the TF preparations. The results will be published elsewhere.

转移因子是致敏白细胞中的可透析物质,能将一个有免疫能力的人的某些细胞免疫力转移给无免疫力的人。所以供给转移因子可能是一种有效的免疫治疗措施。本文详细介绍综合利用血源制备正常人转移因子的方法,并分析其某些理化性质和生物学性质。收集分离血浆后的白细胞层,用三羟甲基氨基甲烷缓冲的或等渗的氯化铵溶液破坏其中污染的红细胞,白细胞经生理盐水洗涤后进行10次冻融,白细胞匀浆对流动去离子水透析,透析液冷冻干燥、除菌分装。每安瓿2毫升转移因子注射液相当4×10~8个白细胞的透析物,保存于-20℃备用。本制剂蛋白质定性检查阴性;每毫克干粉约含多肽148微克、核糖14微克;在250~251毫微米有吸收高峰;转移因子酸水解液硷基纸层析有三种硷基;硅胶薄板层析呈四个茚三酮显色点;葡聚糖G-25凝胶过滤呈可重复的特征性洗脱图谱,具有3个主要峰及若干个小峰,主要洗脱部分在V_t之后。动物实验表明此制剂无毒性、无过敏性和抗原性。本制剂已用于临床治疗带状疱疹、系统性红斑狼疮、慢性乙型肝炎、原发性肝癌、肺癌及白血病等一百六十余例,结果将另文发表。

Two cases of carcinoma of the liver after liver transplantation were studied for the indices of immune response including the E-RFC, LMIT, complements, immuno-globulin, etc.When the immune function of the patient rose significantly, the patient began to produce homogragt rejecting reaction; when the immune function of the patient lowered significantly, the HBV infection and PHC recurred.The relationship between indices of immune response and the dosage of the immune suppressive was discussed.

二例肝癌患者肝移植后,对免疫反应的指标,包括E花环、白细胞移动抑制试验、补体成份、免疫球蛋白等进行了观察研究。 当患者免疫功能显著上升时,患者出现抗移植物的排斥反应;当患者免疫功能显著下降时,乙型肝炎和肝癌复发。 本文对兔疫反应与兔疫抑制剂剂量之间的关系进行了讨论。

An improved method of polyethylene glyool (PEG) annular deposits was used for testing the circulating immune complexes (010) in 85 cases with viral hepatitis in children, in which observations were made of their dynamic changes. The 010 positive rate reached as high as 88.8 % in type B viral hepatitis, which supports the theory that the pathologic mechanism of type B hepatitis is associated with immunology. In type B hepatitis the 010 was mostly postive at its early stage. In those oases whose HBsAg changed...

An improved method of polyethylene glyool (PEG) annular deposits was used for testing the circulating immune complexes (010) in 85 cases with viral hepatitis in children, in which observations were made of their dynamic changes. The 010 positive rate reached as high as 88.8 % in type B viral hepatitis, which supports the theory that the pathologic mechanism of type B hepatitis is associated with immunology. In type B hepatitis the 010 was mostly postive at its early stage. In those oases whose HBsAg changed to negative and SGPT turned to normal, we found that the SGPT came down to normal first, while the 010 generally turned to negative gradually in the course of 2 months. In cases whose 010 was persistently positive, even if SGPT once returned to normal it would most liklely rise again. This is often seen in chronic cases with HBsAg persistently positive. In chronic hepatitis the degree of the median 010 concentration is corresponding to the seriousness of the disease. High median 010 concentration was found in both chronic active hepatitis and fulminant heptatitis. This would serve as an index for the choice of immuno-inhibitive drugs, and its dynamic changes also serve as a reference for judging the prognosis and therapeutic effect. As this method gives a high positive rate, and is convenient for use, it is recommended for general clinical use.

本文介绍改良聚乙二醇(Polyethylene glycol简称PEG)环状沉淀检测病毒性肝炎循环免疫复合物(Circulating immune Complexes简称CIC)的方法。并观察85例小儿病毒性肝炎的动态变化。乙型病毒性肝炎(简称乙肝)CIC阳性率高达88.8%,支持乙肝病理机制与免疫有关的理论。急性乙肝早期CIC多呈阳性,在乙型肝炎表面抗原(HBsAg)能转阴、血清谷丙转氨酶(SGPT)顺利恢复者中,每见SGPT先恢复正常,而CIC大多在病程二个月时才逐渐转阴;CIC持续阳性者,即使SGPT一度恢复正常亦易反跳,常见于HBsAg持续不转阴的慢性患者。在慢性肝炎中CIC半定量浓度的高低与疾病的严重程度有一致性。慢性活动性肝炎(简称慢活肝)及重症肝炎(简称重肝)均测得很高的CIC浓度,可作为选用免疫抑制药物的依据,其动态变化又可作为判断预后及疗效的参考。此法阳性率高,简便、易于推广。

 
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