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心叶     
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  central leaf
     On any condition, the individual green leaf area of flue - cured tobacco in condition of 1/2NH4 + - N +1/2NO3-- N. its growing rate of central leaf and its biomass were greater than those of N03 - N and those of NH4+- N .
     1/2NH_4~+-N+ 1/2NO_3-N营养的植株单株叶面积、心叶生长率速率、生物产量均高于单一NH_4~+-N营养和单一NO_3~--N营养。
  spear leaf
     The spear leaf and mature leaf of three host palm plants, Cocos nucifera Linnaeus, Hyophorbe lagenicaulis (LH. Bailey) HE. Moore, Washingtonia filifera (Linden ex André) Wendland ex de Bary, were used to feed Brontispa longissima (Gestro) to observe the larval development and survival.
     研究了椰子(CocosnuciferaLinnaeus)、酒瓶椰子[Hyophorbelagenicaulis(LH.Bailey)HE.Moore]、老人葵[Washingtoniafilifera(LindenexAndré)WendlandexdeBary]3种寄主植物2种不同生长阶段叶片——未展开的心叶和成熟叶片对椰心叶甲[Brontispalongissima(Gestro)]幼虫生长发育的影响。
短句来源
  heart leaves
     The first generation egg masses of the corn borers are distributed mainly over the range between the 1st leaf and the 5th leaf beneath the heart leaves at the top of the corn ( 96.6%±2.5% of total egg masses) , especially between the 2nd leaf ard the 4th leaf (78.6%±3.7% ).
     在整个一代螟卵期内,卵块主要聚集 分布于玉米心叶下展开叶的第一至第五叶片层上(占总卵块数的96.6%±2.5%),尤其分布于第二至第四叶片层上(占78.6%±3.7%)。
短句来源
     The results showed that the newly hatched larvae preferred to feeding on glandless cotton and the 3rd instar larvae to feeding on heart leaves of corn.
     结果表明:初孵幼虫嗜食无毒棉棉叶,3龄幼虫则喜食玉米心叶。 5龄幼虫在甜玉米上的取食次数最多,取食总时间最长,在有毒棉上的取食时间最短。
短句来源
     The results showed that the CrylAb protein expressions were varies in different tissues throughout the growing season. The highest level of expression was detected in heart leaves at vegetative stage with 1 880.6 and 1 473.1 ng·g-1, and the lowest in pollen at reproductive stage with 52.3 and 73.3 ng·g-1 in MON810 and Bt11, respectively.
     结果表明,Cry1Ab杀虫蛋白在Bt玉米MON810和Bt11的不同生育期和组织中的表达量呈明显的时空动态变化,以营养生长阶段的心叶组织表达最高,分别为1880.6和1473.1ng·g-1,生殖生长阶段的花粉含量最低,分别为52.3和73.3ng·g-1。
短句来源
     The heart leaves of tobacco seedlings were mutagenized with 0. 3% EMS. The seedlings were laid under critical selection pressure after inoculation. Seventy-eight abnormal or chlorisis leaves, which had only one to two green islands, were selected from 928 diseased seedlings of Burley 18. The green islands were sectioned and cultured on medium.
     用0.3%EMS(硫酸二乙酯)诱变烟苗心叶,接种CMV后置临界选择条件下从普通烟草良种Burley18的928个病株中选到每叶仅1~2个绿岛的畸型褪绿叶78片。
短句来源
     Suiping Xiaozihuang was a sensitive variety to flooding, expressing fast yellowed heart leaves, no white roots to be emerged, and the severe yield lost, with the 0. 338 relative yield.
     遂平小籽黄心叶黄化快,基本无白根发生,产量损失大,相对产量0.338,耐渍性差。
短句来源
  heart leaf
     in this study, heart leaf,involucre pedicel, filament of Daylily were explanted on different mediums. The results showed that the percentage of callusinduction from pcdiccl was the highest (51. 3 % )in four explants.
     用黄花菜心叶、花被筒、花薹、花丝等外植体在不同培养基上培养,结果表明:花薹外植体的愈伤组织诱导率最高,为51.3%;
短句来源

 

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      central leaf
    Myzus ornatus grew larger on the rim of the lamina than on more central leaf areas.
          
    This corresponds with high moisture accumulation on the central leaf which is the path of newly hatched larva as it moves downwards from the oviposition site, towards the growing apex.
          
    Increased oil yield was associated to a significantly larger number of peltate glandular trichomes (main sites of essential oil synthesis) in the basal and central leaf zones.
          
    The central leaf vein is clear with slight apophysis and both sides have narrow dentate wings.
          
      spear leaf
    Results indicate that the palm is destructively harvested, usually for a single spear leaf.
          
    The results showed that the isoprenoid cytokinins were several fold more abundant than the aromatic cytokinins in each of the plant parts analysed: immature inflorescence, shoot apical meristem (SAM), spear leaf and embryo.
          
    The zygotic embryos showed the highest content, double that in immature inflorescence, and five times more that in spear leaf and SAM.
          
    The youngest open leaf, which was next to the spear leaf, of each seedling was sampled for chemical analysis after 12 months of seedling growth.
          
    Day 0 represents the spear leaf used for tissue culture.
          
      heart leaves
    Aphids which fed on older leaves, irrespective of plant age, suffered greater mortality than those feeding on young heart leaves.
          
    Enclosed lettuce heart leaves have a much lower transpiration rate and so draw less water and calcium.
          
    With less calcium available, the rapidly growing heart leaves form weaker cell walls which may collapse and die as the leaves expand close to harvest.
          


    In the vicinity of Canton mosaic is one of the most important diseases on

    广州郊区、新会县荷塘乡及南海县佛山市郊的蕪菁、芥菜、白菜、菜心和蘿卜等十字花科蔬菜普遍感染花叶病.根据寄主范围、病状及病毒的物理性質,这种花叶病經鑒定系由甘藍病毒2号(Brassica virus 2)的2个品系及黃瓜病毒1号((Cucumis virus1)的2个品系所致。在屬于甘藍病毒2号的两个品系中,一个类似芜菁花叶病毒(Chamber-lain,1936)(簡称“芜菁毒系”),另一个类似油菜花叶病毒(凌立与楊演1940,1941)(簡称“油菜毒系”)。在屬于黄瓜病毒1号的两个品系中,一个对十字花科蔬菜完全缺乏侵染力,而另一个有微弱的侵染力。这些病毒品系在上述十字花科蔬菜上所引致的花叶病状都很相像,很难分辨. 根据在鑒別寄主(烟草、心叶烟和白菜)上的病状表現,少量(77个罹病标本)的試驗結果說明甘藍病毒2号的“油菜毒系”类在本区發生最多,分布最广。甘藍病毒2号的“芜菁毒系”类和黄瓜病毒1号类(包括2个毒系)發生較少,前者的分布較广,在广州郊区和新会县俱有發現,后者只在广州郊区5个相邻的乡村發現。

    Chinese rape, varieties of Brassica campestris and B. chinensis and many cruciferous crops including radishes, but except varieties of B. oleracea, are generally affected by a mosaic disease, causing serious losses amounting occasionally to a death rate of over 90%, while an infection rate of over 30% is not uncommon. The symptoms involved were vein-clearing, yellow or green veinbanding, typical mosaic, rugosity of leaf lamina, dwarfing and rosetting. They may appear in different combinations. Flower stalks...

    Chinese rape, varieties of Brassica campestris and B. chinensis and many cruciferous crops including radishes, but except varieties of B. oleracea, are generally affected by a mosaic disease, causing serious losses amounting occasionally to a death rate of over 90%, while an infection rate of over 30% is not uncommon. The symptoms involved were vein-clearing, yellow or green veinbanding, typical mosaic, rugosity of leaf lamina, dwarfing and rosetting. They may appear in different combinations. Flower stalks may not come out or are shortened, deformed and twisted. Flowers appeared pale yellow and become abortive, or forming only small and twisted seed pod, which are sometimes spotted with black necrosis, and bearing small and deformed seeds. When the winter temperature is low, diseased plants may succumb first, forming missing hills. Late infections may result only in vein-banding of the upper leaves and partial abortion of the seeds. On several varieties of radish, mostly of the green type, which apparently are more resistant, only fine mottling appears on the leaves while infected. On varieties of B. napella, another oil-bearing group, the symptoms are entirely different (plate 1, fig. 5), appearing as systemic bright yellow spots on the leaves. Necrotic flecking can eventually be found at the center of these spots. Necrotic streaks and spots develop on the flower stalks and seed pods. Dwarfing and distortion occur on leaves, stalks and pods, and death may even be resulted from severe infections. However, this species showed certain degree of resistance to the disease in the form of late infection and the lower incidence of the disease. The viruses from different host plants are cross-inoculable, although some strains do not infect B. napella. None of them can infect the cabbage group by sap inoculation. 3 viruses were identified: differentiated by their physical properties and the host reactions they induced (Tables 1 and 2 for the viruses 1 and 2): 1. Thermal inactivation below 70℃. 2. Producing necrotic local lesions only on N. tabacum var, "Nungling 400" …… virus 1 2. Producing necrotic local lesions and systemic mottling on the same host……virus 2 1. Thermal inactivation above 90℃., necrotic local lesions on N. glutinosa…… virus 3 The first two viruses can be subdivided into 2 strains each by their ability to infect B. napella. Virus 1 is considered to be a strain of Brassica virus 2 or the Turnip mosaic virus; from the type, it differs in not infecting the cabbage group. Virus 2 is identified as a strain of Cucumis virus 1 or the Cucumber mosaic; virus; from the type, it differs in having lower thermal inactivation point (55℃.), lower dilution end point (1: 1,000—3,000); and shorter longevity invitro (2 days), in producing local lesions on tobacco, and in that the typical strain of Cacumis virus 1 gives only a partial protection to this strain on tobacco. The 3rd virus was less studied. It shows affinity to Nicotiana virus 1 or the tobacco mosaic virus. A limited test showed that the first virus was the only virus found present in the field in 1957. An analysis of 17 isolates of virus from the Chinese rape, exhibiting various syndromes of symptoms in the field, gave an Unanimous result in host reactions, indicating that these isolates belong to a single virus. Virus 1 was found to be easily transmitted by sap, by aphids, including peach aphid (Myzus pcrsicae), false cabbage aphid (Rhopalosiphum pseudobrassicae), and cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii). In insect relationship, the virus belongs to the nonpersistent group, a single feeding will enable an active transmission of about 20 minutes. Peach aphid seems to be an effective vector that 2 or more viruliferous aphids per plant are capable of 100% transmission. The virus is not seed-transmitted. Fresh residue of diseased plant in the soil may cause occasional infection of the replanted plants. The virus can infect several cruciferous weeds, but, among them, only Rorippa montana (wall.) Small grows all the year round and possesses a perennial crown. It is also foundto be commonly infected in the nature. Rubbing with infected sap or using aphid as vector, the virus from this weed can easily be transmitted to the Chinese rape, producing the typical mosaic symptoms. This weed, therefore, seems to be capable of beoming a source of inoculum for the primary infection of the Chinese rape.

    南京及华东地区的油菜与十字花科蔬菜普遍发生花叶病。病原病毒經抗性(失毒温度、稀释終点、体外保毒期)測定和寄主反应測定,认为可以分作三大类型:分别为芸苔病毒2号,黄瓜病毒1号与烟病毒1号的株系。前两种病毒都能为害油菜、大白菜、白菜、芥菜、蘿卜等,但不为害甘蓝型的蔬菜,并都能引起菠菜和茼蒿的花叶,和在烟上引起局部枯斑。第一型在烟农特400号和心叶烟上不引起花叶,而第二型在烟和心叶烟上都能引起系統性花叶。第一型不为害心叶烟,而第三型可在心叶烟上引起小枯斑。第一型与凌立、楊演的油菜花叶病毒相近似,而和范怀忠、柯冲从十字花科蔬菜中所分离出的分离物1号最为相象。与裘維蕃、王祁楷在白菜上所发現的孤丁病毒的差别,在于不能侵害甘蓝类的蔬菜。第二型病毒与范怀忠、柯冲的分离物3号相近似,但与典型的黃瓜花叶病毒仍具有一定的差异。这些病毒在油菜上所引起的症状却沒有明显的差別。1、2两个类型的病毒都有一部分能为害早生朝鮮型的油菜,引起系統性黄斑及枮斑,病重的也能早期死亡。大田中的油菜病株的病毒,大多属于第一型病毒。病毒主要由桃蚜和蘿卜蚜传染,病毒系非持續性的,蚜虫一次吸毒后,传病期不超过2...

    南京及华东地区的油菜与十字花科蔬菜普遍发生花叶病。病原病毒經抗性(失毒温度、稀释終点、体外保毒期)測定和寄主反应測定,认为可以分作三大类型:分别为芸苔病毒2号,黄瓜病毒1号与烟病毒1号的株系。前两种病毒都能为害油菜、大白菜、白菜、芥菜、蘿卜等,但不为害甘蓝型的蔬菜,并都能引起菠菜和茼蒿的花叶,和在烟上引起局部枯斑。第一型在烟农特400号和心叶烟上不引起花叶,而第二型在烟和心叶烟上都能引起系統性花叶。第一型不为害心叶烟,而第三型可在心叶烟上引起小枯斑。第一型与凌立、楊演的油菜花叶病毒相近似,而和范怀忠、柯冲从十字花科蔬菜中所分离出的分离物1号最为相象。与裘維蕃、王祁楷在白菜上所发現的孤丁病毒的差别,在于不能侵害甘蓝类的蔬菜。第二型病毒与范怀忠、柯冲的分离物3号相近似,但与典型的黃瓜花叶病毒仍具有一定的差异。这些病毒在油菜上所引起的症状却沒有明显的差別。1、2两个类型的病毒都有一部分能为害早生朝鮮型的油菜,引起系統性黄斑及枮斑,病重的也能早期死亡。大田中的油菜病株的病毒,大多属于第一型病毒。病毒主要由桃蚜和蘿卜蚜传染,病毒系非持續性的,蚜虫一次吸毒后,传病期不超过20分钟。两个以上的桃蚜传病率就可达100%。种子不传病。殘留在土壤內的新鮮病根,可以传病。蔊菜在自然情况下可以感染病害。病株上病毒可由蚜虫传至油菜而誘发典型的花叶病,且具有終年生长及終年发病的特性,可能成为初期发病的病毒来源。

    During 1959-1960 tests were made of the suscept range of the sweet potato wilt organ-ism,ps.batatae Cheng and Faan.Twenty-seven species of plants belonging to 12 familieswere artificially inoculated.The results show that potato (Solanum tuberosum L.),tomato(Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.),pepper (Capsicum frutescens L.),eggplant (Solanummelongena L.) and wild tobacco (Nicotiana glutinosa L.) are susceptible.This is in agreementwith the opinion of sweet potato growers in various localities and the experimental...

    During 1959-1960 tests were made of the suscept range of the sweet potato wilt organ-ism,ps.batatae Cheng and Faan.Twenty-seven species of plants belonging to 12 familieswere artificially inoculated.The results show that potato (Solanum tuberosum L.),tomato(Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.),pepper (Capsicum frutescens L.),eggplant (Solanummelongena L.) and wild tobacco (Nicotiana glutinosa L.) are susceptible.This is in agreementwith the opinion of sweet potato growers in various localities and the experimental result ob-tained by Hwang and his coworkers in Kwangsi.They claimed that,with the exception ofwild tobacco which is not a crop plant,all the other 4 plant species are natural suscepts ofthe disease.The authors of the present paper suggest that these plants should not be used asrotation crops.The other 21 species of plants belonging to 12 families including Chinese radish (Raphanussativus L.),pumpkins (Cucurbita moschata Duch.),tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) and Moon-flower (Calonyction aculeatum House) which are considered by the Kwangsi workers and bysome farmers to be natural suscepts of the disease were found to be immune to the disease.These plants are as follows:—Araceae:Colocacia antiquorum Schott;Amaryllidaceae:Alliumfistulosum L.and A.sativum L.;Compositae:Helianthus annuus L.and Zinnia elegans Jacq.;Cruciferae:Raphanus sativus L.,Brassica juncea (L.) Cossm.and B.alboglabra Bailey;Con-volvulaceae:Calonyction aculeatum (L.) House and Ipomoea hederacea (L.) Jacq.;Cucurbita-ceae:Cucumis sativus L.and Cucurbita moschata Duch.;Euphorbiaceae:Ricinnus communisL.;Gramineae:Zea mays L.;Malvaceae:Gossypium indicum L.;Papilionaceae:Arachis hypo-goea L.,Vicia fabae L.,Glycine soja (L.) S.and Z.and Vigna sesquipedalis Fruwirth;Pedaliaceae:Sesamum orientale L.;Solanaceae:Nicotiana tabacum L.var.Havana 38 andDatura metel L.

    1959—1960年,对甘薯细菌性枯萎病菌(Pseudomonas batatae Cheng andFaan)的侵染专化性进行了试验。供试的植物共12科27种。人工接种试验结果:除甘薯外本菌还能侵染马铃薯、番茄、辣椒、茄子和心叶菸等5种植物,和雨广很多病区农民所反映的情况以及黄亮等在广西的试验结果相符合。其他12科21种植物包括黄亮等所认为是本病的寄主的萝卜、芥菜、菸草、月光花和南瓜等,经二次重复试验结果都不感病,初步说明它们不是本菌的寄主。

     
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