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 In the paper, a new concept and measuring method of effective clear field of photoelectric coupler are put forward. For coding specifications, two additional quantities, absolute effective clear area and relative effective clear area, are used and it has deen indicated that the relative effective clear area can more comprehensively illuminate the design puality of coding com paring with other specifications. It has had also a discussionon the occuring and avoiding of multizero position signals in the paper.  本文首次提出了光栅副的有效通光域的概念及有效通光域的测量方法。对编码的技术指标补加了绝对有效通光面积和相对有效通光面积两个量,并阐明了相对有效通光面积较之其它指标更能综合地反映编码的设计质量。对多零位信号的出现和避免也进行了讨论。  This paper focuses on the way grating is counted by GAL and microcontroller. A method for eliminating accumulative error by using more than one zero point of grating is presented, and by modifying the counter and zero times of grating in non zero point, the problem to get the absolute displacement is solved. When grating is applied, it is easy to clear by mistake under noise setting, and if it is driven by step motor, this mistake can be judged by verifying the counter's change of every step. The counter can... This paper focuses on the way grating is counted by GAL and microcontroller. A method for eliminating accumulative error by using more than one zero point of grating is presented, and by modifying the counter and zero times of grating in non zero point, the problem to get the absolute displacement is solved. When grating is applied, it is easy to clear by mistake under noise setting, and if it is driven by step motor, this mistake can be judged by verifying the counter's change of every step. The counter can be restored automatically if the grating passes the nearest zero point according to the counter before mistakes happen.  提出了采用多零位信号自动消除大量程光栅尺计数累积误差的方法 ,并通过在光栅尺的非零位处对计数值和清零次数的修改 ,解决了引入零位信号后光栅尺的绝对位移难以求取的问题 ,通过采用逐步检测的方法判断计数值是否被误清零而出错 ,并根据出错前的计数值让光栅尺通过最近的零位 ,自动修正光栅尺的计数值  According to the principle of generating zeroposition signal, the design method of twodimension zeroposition grating code is presented based on genetic algorithm. Genetic algorithm is an intelligent algorithm with the features of selforganized, selfadaptive and selflearning, and can be used to solve the problems of searching and optimization for largescale problems at limited cost. Gray code is applied in the code design and computer simulation was carried out. Finally, the simulation result is discussed... According to the principle of generating zeroposition signal, the design method of twodimension zeroposition grating code is presented based on genetic algorithm. Genetic algorithm is an intelligent algorithm with the features of selforganized, selfadaptive and selflearning, and can be used to solve the problems of searching and optimization for largescale problems at limited cost. Gray code is applied in the code design and computer simulation was carried out. Finally, the simulation result is discussed and evaluated.  本文根据零位信号的产生原理,提出了一种基于遗传算法的二维零位光栅编码的设计方法。遗传算法是一种自组织、自适应和自学习的智能型算法,能以有限代价来解决大规模问题的搜索和优化。本文采用格雷码进行编码,并对编码过程进行了计算机模拟。对计算机仿真的结果进行了讨论和评价。  
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