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酒精发酵
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     Study on Ethanol Fermentation from Pentose
     戊糖酒精发酵
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     Evolution of Ethanol Fermentation Techniques
     酒精发酵技术的进展
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     and (T+P)(!)
     和T P( !)
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     the fermentation of acetic acid;
     醋酸发酵;
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     (n+1-j)!
     (n1-j)!
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Plasticizing agent is an organic surface-active admixture for cement mortar and concrete. It may be introduced also as an "addition" to the clinker during the grinding process in the manufacture of plasticizing Portland cement. In the USSR, the plasticizing agent under the name of "has been extensively and successfully used in construction works.The plasticizing agent is prepared by chemical treatment of the waste from the alcoholic fermentation of sulfite liquor in pulp manufacture. It contains calcium lignin...

Plasticizing agent is an organic surface-active admixture for cement mortar and concrete. It may be introduced also as an "addition" to the clinker during the grinding process in the manufacture of plasticizing Portland cement. In the USSR, the plasticizing agent under the name of "has been extensively and successfully used in construction works.The plasticizing agent is prepared by chemical treatment of the waste from the alcoholic fermentation of sulfite liquor in pulp manufacture. It contains calcium lignin sulphonate as an effective component and thus possesses hydrophilic property. Due to the adsorption of the agent, a colloidal layer is formed on the surface of the cement particle; hence the effective dispersion and the increase of lubricity between the particles.Following the Soviet experience of CCB, the Materials-Testing and Research Laboratory of Shanghai Civil Engineering Bureau successfully experimented with the preparation of thermal polymer of the plasticizing agent, and a series of tests on the characteristics of the agent were made. This paper attempts to describe the method of preparation and the main properties of the agent.The addition of the agent in an amount of 0.1—0.2% of cement (dry weight) markedly improves the workability and the texture of the mortar and concrete mixtures. It reduces the water requirement and the cement content. It improves the impermeability and durability of the hardened mortar and concrete.The agent has a retarding effect on the setting of cement. It lowers the early strength of mortar and concrete, while the strength of later age is higher than those without admixtures. The use of CaCl_2 accelerator in 0.5—1% of cement by weight speeds up the rate of development of the early strength.The proper dosage of the agent depends upon the properties of cement. Therefore, certain tests should be made with the specified cement and aggregates on the job before the adoption of the agent.

本文介紹亞硫酸鹽酒精液滓塑化劑實驗室中的試製以及對於水泥膠砂及混凝土技術性能方面的作用。首先說明一些塑化劑的理論及亞硫酸鹽酒精液滓的技術規格,再簡要的介紹上海市政工程局材料試驗研究所試驗研究的經過和結果;最后综合蘇聯對於塑化劑和塑化水泥使用的先進經驗。塑化剂是一種有機的表面活動性物質,利用造紙工業发液進行酒精發酵所得的液滓。加入微量的塑化劑——約為水泥重量的0.1—0.25%,可以顯著的改善膠砂和混凝土的性質。在增加流動性、改善和易性和提高耐久性方面,有十分的效用,尤其是對節約水泥用量有极大的意義。祖國的建设事業正迫切需要這類新型的建築材料,因此提供一些试驗研究結果,以供国家主管機關和科技工作同志們深入研究和推廣使用時的參考。

Intraspecific protoplast fusion,induced by polyethylene glycol and Ca~(++),was carried out between auxotrophin haploid and diploid mutants of Saccharomy- ces cerevisiae.It was observed that nutritionally complemented stable heterozygous tri- ploid hybrids were obtained as evidenced by the cell DNA content and the cell volume. The growth rate and the fermentation rate of the triploid hybrids were much faster,and the productivity of alcohol was 2% higher thart that of the parental strains.The advan- tages of this...

Intraspecific protoplast fusion,induced by polyethylene glycol and Ca~(++),was carried out between auxotrophin haploid and diploid mutants of Saccharomy- ces cerevisiae.It was observed that nutritionally complemented stable heterozygous tri- ploid hybrids were obtained as evidenced by the cell DNA content and the cell volume. The growth rate and the fermentation rate of the triploid hybrids were much faster,and the productivity of alcohol was 2% higher thart that of the parental strains.The advan- tages of this triploid hybrids may have some industrial uses.

本文报道用酿酒酵母(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)原生质体融合,得到营养互补的融合子为三倍体,其生长速度、发酵速率均较亲株提高1—2倍。部分融合子酒精的产量高于亲株,同时高于目前使用的酒精发酵生产菌株。

A method of immobilizing the yeast cells using corallite as the carrier and renewing the corallite, the situation and data of alcohol fermentation experiment using immobilized yeast cells in the laboratory and in the plant, separately are described and introducedo During a month of fermentation, in summer, experiments show the average conversion ratio of alcohol to sugar to be 90%, with a maximum of 98.5%. The pilot plant experiments show the rate of fermentation in the column of immobilized yeast cell is faster...

A method of immobilizing the yeast cells using corallite as the carrier and renewing the corallite, the situation and data of alcohol fermentation experiment using immobilized yeast cells in the laboratory and in the plant, separately are described and introducedo During a month of fermentation, in summer, experiments show the average conversion ratio of alcohol to sugar to be 90%, with a maximum of 98.5%. The pilot plant experiments show the rate of fermentation in the column of immobilized yeast cell is faster than in the fermentor.

本文叙述了海浮石作为载体的固定酵母细胞方法和海浮石再生方法,并分别介绍实验室试验和加工厂小试固定化酵母细胞酒精发酵的情况和数据,试验成果,夏季发酵1个月平均对糖转化率为90%,最高为98.5%。工厂小试表明,固定化酵母细胞柱发酵比发酵罐快。

 
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