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清代北京
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  “清代北京”译为未确定词的双语例句
     Communicating and Mingling of Elites with Businessmen in Beijing Guild Halls of Ch'ing Dynasty and its Political Attribute
     清代北京会馆的政治属性与士商交融
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     ADMINISTRATIVE BOUNDARIES OF SUBURBAN BEIJING DURING THE QING DYNASTY
     清代北京城市郊区行政界线探索
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     Bystreet and house in courtyard style of Beijing City in the Qing Dynasty
     清代北京城内的胡同与合院式住宅——对《加摹乾隆京城全图》中“六排三”与“八排十”的研究
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     The Characteristic of the Development and the Researching Significance of Beijing Talking and Singing Literature in Qing Dynasty
     清代北京说唱文学的发展特点及研究意义
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     Integration of Banner People and Civilians in the Qing Dynasty
     清代北京的旗、民一体化进程——兼论北京满汉文化的交融
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     Beijing's Inner and Outer Cities in the Qing Dynasty
     清代北京内外城
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     Snuff bottles of Beijing and imperial court in the Qing Dynasty
     清代北京和宫廷的鼻烟壺
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     Maagnanimous Beijing
     大气北京
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     BEIJING NORMAL UNIVERSITY
     北京师范大学
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     Theatrical Troupe Management in Qing Dynasty
     清代的戏班管理
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  beijing in qing dynasty
Water channels in Beijing in Qing Dynasty were mainly old channels left from Ming Dynasty.
      


Suburbs are a transitional zone between city and country with the characteristics of both. Peripheral to and administered by a city, suburbs have nonetheless always been an important part of cities. Historically they represent an important stage in the development of cities. During the Qing Dynasty (1644 ̄1911), the suburbs of Beijing were known as chengshu (literally, “belonging to the city”) whose administrative boundaries were demarcated during the mid Yongzheng reign (1723 ̄1735). But because of inconsistent...

Suburbs are a transitional zone between city and country with the characteristics of both. Peripheral to and administered by a city, suburbs have nonetheless always been an important part of cities. Historically they represent an important stage in the development of cities. During the Qing Dynasty (1644 ̄1911), the suburbs of Beijing were known as chengshu (literally, “belonging to the city”) whose administrative boundaries were demarcated during the mid Yongzheng reign (1723 ̄1735). But because of inconsistent historical records, scholarly views regarding the locations of the boundaries have long differed. Using information and maps on Beijing's suburbs recorded in the local gazetteers compiled during the Qing, this study first ascertains that Beijing's chengshu were indeed its suburbs. After raising questions concerning the areal extent and the boundaries of chengshu recorded in documents, the approximate outer boundary of Beijing's chengshu is identified by relying on the data from the imperial edicts of Emperor Yongzheng. The edicts provide information on the city's garrison and police district that corresponded to the city's suburban area. This boundary was stable until the Republican period (1911 ̄1949). The significance and function of the boundary are then discussed. Whereas China's administrative systems and regional divisions appeared quite early in history, regional divisions at different administrative levels were usually controlled by long and customary traditions without any clearly defined legal boundaries. For example, during the Sui (581 ̄618) and the Tang (618 ̄907) Dynasties, administrative regions known as sizhi badao (literally, “four reaches and eight arrivals”, referring to the four cardinal directions plus the additional subdirections of northeast, southeast, southwest and northwest), were merely very general administrative areas of different levels without any rigid administrative boundaries. The Qing more clearly demarcated the boundaries at different administrative levels to maintain border peace and for better social control, including the delimitation of Beijing's suburban boundaries. In the history of urban growth in China and elsewhere, this development is important. After their boundary had been delimited, the suburbs of Beijing provided space for the Manchu Bannermen to concentrate in who had come from the city, for the construction of imperial gardens and villas, and for the development of handicraft industry, trade and services.

城市郊区是行政上隶属于城市的城市外围地区,是兼有城市和田园双重职能与景观特色的过渡地带,是城市的重要组成部分;又是城市发展到一定历史阶段的产物,在城市发展史上占有重要地位。北京城市郊区清代称为城属,其行政边界划定于雍正中。但这条行政界线的具体走向却长期存在歧异认识,实有必要予以考察。为此,本文系统考察了清代北京城市城属行政边界的大体走向,进而阐述了清雍正中勘定京师城属外部行政边界的意义。

The Culture of the Man nationality used to be a hunting type.Because the Man nationality had looked up to the culture of the Han nationality that was agricultural one,they protected and used the palaces of the Ming Dynasty in Beijing after getting into the south of the Great Wall.The culture of the building and folk custom of the Man had a great influence upon palaces,monasteries,buildings,language,literature and arts,folk custom and food in Beijing.After getting into Beijing,the rulers of the Man carried out...

The Culture of the Man nationality used to be a hunting type.Because the Man nationality had looked up to the culture of the Han nationality that was agricultural one,they protected and used the palaces of the Ming Dynasty in Beijing after getting into the south of the Great Wall.The culture of the building and folk custom of the Man had a great influence upon palaces,monasteries,buildings,language,literature and arts,folk custom and food in Beijing.After getting into Beijing,the rulers of the Man carried out the culture of the Man nationality and policy that the people of the Man and others lived in two separate places.These policies caused the people of the Han untold suffering and formed two different cultural circles.Their differences were merged in the course of associating each other.This promoted the development of splendid culture of the Chinese Nation. [

牧猎型的满洲文化与农耕型的汉族京师文化,有冲撞,有吸纳,也有融合。基于对汉文化的仰慕,入关后的满族对北京的明代宫殿加以保护和利用。在清代北京及京畿地区的建设中,满族的建筑文化对北京的宫殿建筑、宗教建筑和民用建筑,以及苑囿行宫的建设产生了深刻的影响,其遗迹至今可见。满族入关后,强制推行满族文化,在北京实行旗、民分城居住的政策,造成民人的巨大苦难,在空间上形成了既有交叉,又各成体统的满、汉两个文化圈。满洲的民俗文化对北京的语言、文艺、民风、民俗和饮食,产生很大影响。满族文化在与汉族文化自然交融的过程中,逐渐被融化,从而发展了中华民族多元而统一的灿烂文化。

Based on stele rubbings, this article focuses on land donations to temples in Beijing by bannermen in the Qing dynasty. The article discusses the sources of land donations, the donors, the objectives of the land donation, and the influence of these donations. These land donations resulted in the development of large landed temples and eroded the banner land holdings.

本文依据碑刻拓片 ,对清代北京旗人将土地施舍给寺庙宫观的现象进行了研究 ,主要考察施舍地的来源、施主的身份 ,施舍地的对象、施舍地的影响 ,认为旗人舍地产生了两方面的后果 :促进了寺观大土地的发展 ,又造成旗地的流失。

 
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